Achieving full inclusion in schools is a goal that many countries have set themselves, thereby seeking to respond to the diversity of learning needs. In this sense, it is necessary for teachers to implement inclusive practices in classrooms that meet the characteristics and needs of all students, an example of which is reasonable accommodation .
WHAT ARE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONS?
Reasonable accommodations are the necessary and appropriate modifications and adaptations that are carried out when required in order to guarantee people the enjoyment or exercise of their rights, under equal conditions . They are made because it will not always be possible to design and make all products or services in such a way that they can be used by everyone.
REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION IN EDUCATION
The importance of reasonable accommodations in education lies in the fact that they are specific measures aimed at accessibility in particular cases; they are likewise an imperative to guarantee equal opportunities. They also have the characteristic that they do not impose a disproportionate or undue burden when implemented. Previously, in the educational field, the term “curricular adjustments” was used , but it did not fully respond to what full inclusion implies.
The realization of reasonable adjustments is related to the timely identification of the students’ needs, the priorities and the possibilities of improvement in the school and the classroom, for this it is necessary to carry out a complete group and school diagnosis .
TYPES OF REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION
There are different types of reasonable accommodations that can be implemented in schools and classrooms, depending of course, on the characteristics and needs of the students; Here are some examples:
- In carrying out the activities:demonstrate the activities to be carried out; place the student in a strategic place in the classroom to encourage their participation; use signs or symbols to represent an activity; use audios as a way to present content; use evaluation alternatives such as oral when evaluating students.
- In materials:adapt materials and spaces with relief; use large type letters and magnifying glasses to enlarge the image; make adaptations in pencils and scissors to facilitate grip; construct visual boards or agendas in anticipation of routines or activities, or use reference objects that tell the child what will happen; use dictionaries to understand emotions or situations with double meaning.
- In the curriculum:adapt the content sequences of different subjects; design activities and support materials; adapt the evaluation criteria according to the characteristics and needs of the students.
- In infrastructure and spaces: adapt handrails in toilets, place signs, place visual contrasts in windows.
- In communication and information:use graphics, photographs, drawings, pictograms, words or letters, gestures or mimicry; put Braille signage in various spaces throughout the school.
- In the organization of the school day:modify the schedules of some classes or the placement of students in different classrooms.
You may be interested in: Inclusive methodologies to implement in class
Reasonable accommodations help ensure fairness and inclusion for all students. In relation to this, it is essential that schools take up the previous recommendations, in order to be able to offer a quality education in all senses