The Physical Development of the Students are very important.School-age children very often have strong, fluid motor skills. However, their coordination (especially hand-eye), stamina, balance, and physical abilities vary.
Physical Development of the Students consist of four aspects, namely:
(a) Muscles, which affect the development of strength and motor skills;
(b) The nervous system which greatly influences the development of intelligence and emotions;
(c) Endocrine glands, which cause the emergence of new patterns of behavior, such as in adolescence develop a feeling of pleasure to be active in an activity, some of whose members consist of the opposite sex;
(d) Physical structure / body, which includes height, weight, and proportions.
Physical Development of Students, Seifert and Hoffnung (1994) argued that physical development includes changes in the body (such as: brain growth, nervous system, sensory organs, height and weight gain, hormones, etc.), and changes. changes in the way individuals use their bodies (such as motor skills development and sexual development), as well as changes in physical abilities (such as decreased heart function, vision, and so on).
Understanding The Physical Development Of Students
Physical development of the students. Physical development or biological growth is one of the important aspects of individual development. According to Seifert and Hoffnung (1994), physical development includes changes in the body (brain growth, nervous system, etc.), and changes in the ways individuals use their bodies (motor skills development), as well as changes in physical abilities ( decreased heart function, vision and so on)..
School-age children very often have strong, fluid motor skills. However, their coordination (especially hand-eye), stamina, balance, and physical abilities vary.
Fine motor skills also vary widely. These skills can affect a child’s ability to write neatly, dress appropriately, and perform certain household tasks, such as making the bed or washing dishes.
There will be considerable differences in height, weight, and physical type among children in this age range. It is important to remember that genetic backgrounds, like nutrition and exercise, can affect a child’s growth.
The sense of body image begins to develop around the age of 6. Sedentary habits in school-age children are linked to a risk of obesity and heart disease in adults. Children in this age group should get 1 hour of physical activity per day.
There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics. For girls, secondary sexual characteristics include:
- The development of the breasts
- Hair growth in the pubis and armpits
For children, these characteristics include:
- Hair growth on the pubis, armpits, and chest
- Growth of the penis and testicles
By age 5, most children are ready to begin learning in a school setting. The first few years are focused on learning the basics.
In the third grade, the approach becomes more complex. Reading focuses more on content than on identifying letters and words.
The ability to pay attention is important to success both at school and at home. A 6-year-old should be able to focus on a task for at least 15 minutes. By age 9, a child should already be able to focus attention for about an hour.
It is important for the child to learn to cope with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including:
- Learning problems, such as trouble reading
- Stressors, such as bullying
- Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression
If you suspect that your child has any of these, talk to his teacher or health care provider.
Children beginning school age should be able to use simple, but complete sentences that contain an average of 5 to 7 words. As the child progresses through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. As children get older, they use more complex sentences.
The delay in language development may be due to hearing or intelligence problems. Additionally, children who are unable to express themselves well may be more prone to aggressive behaviors or tantrums.
A 6-year-old can normally follow a series of 3 consecutive orders. By the age of 10, most children can follow 5 consecutive commands. Children who have a problem in this area may try to cover it up by responding in an insolent way or by clowning around. They will seldom ask for help because they fear being teased.
Frequent physical ailments (such as pain in the throat, stomach, and limbs) may simply be due to an increase in the child’s body awareness. Although there is usually no physical evidence to corroborate these conditions, they need to be investigated to rule out a possible major illness. This will also reassure the child that the parent cares for their well-being.
Peer acceptance becomes more important during the school-age years. Children can engage in certain behaviors to become part of “a group.” Talking about these behaviors with the child will allow him to feel accepted in that group, without crossing the limits of the behavior patterns in the family.
Friendships at this age tend to be made primarily with members of the same sex. In fact, children who are in the first years of school age often talk about how members of the opposite sex are “strange” and “terrible.” Children become less negative towards the opposite sex as they approach adolescence.
Lying, cheating, and stealing are examples of behaviors that school-age children can “try out” as they learn to cope with the expectations and norms set for them by family, friends, school, and society. Parents should handle these behaviors in private with their children (so that the child’s friends do not disturb him). Parents must be willing to forgive and punish the behavior.
It is important for the child to learn to cope with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem.
Safety is important for school-age children.
- School-age children are very active. They need physical activity and approval from their peers, and they want to try bolder and more adventurous behaviors.
- Children should be taught to participate in sports in appropriate, safe and supervised areas, with appropriate equipment and rules. Bicycles, skateboards, inline skates, and other recreational sports equipment should fit the child. They should be used only while following traffic and pedestrian rules, and while wearing safety equipment, such as knee pads, elbow pads, wrist guards, and helmets. Sports equipment should not be used at night or in extreme weather conditions.
- Swimming and water safety classes can help prevent drowning.
- Safety instructions on the use of matches, lighters, grills, stoves, or open fires can prevent major burns.
- The use of seat belts is the most important way to prevent major injuries or death from a car accident.
- If the child’s physical development seems to be out of the norm, talk to your provider.
- If language skills seem to be lagging, request a speech and language assessment.
- Maintain close communication with teachers, other school employees, and the parents of your child’s friends so that you can be aware of potential problems.
- Encourage children to express themselves openly and discuss their concerns without fear of retaliation.
- While encouraging children to participate in various social and physical experiences, be careful not to schedule too many activities for them in their free time. Free play or simply rest time is important so that the child does not always feel pressured by performance.
- Today, children are exposed through the media and their peers to many issues related to violence, sexuality and drug addiction . Talk about these issues with your children openly to share concerns or correct misconceptions. Limits may need to be set to ensure that children will be exposed to certain issues only when they are ready for it.
- Encourage children to participate in constructive activities, such as sports, clubs, arts, music, and Boy Scouts programs. Being sedentary at this age increases the risk of obesity for life. However, it is important not to schedule too many activities for the child. Try to find a balance between family time, schoolwork, free play, and structured activities.
- School-age children should be involved in family chores, such as setting the table for eating and cleaning.