What is “Islam”? Some answered “congratulations”, “peace”, or “prosperity”. Answers like these are not wrong, though they have not yet touched the fundamental meaning. Another common answer, “Islam” is “a religion revealed to the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him by the angel Gabriel to be submitted to his community”. Such ‘narrow’ definitions are often taught in formal curricula since school. Although not totally wrong, there is another understanding of “Islam” that is truer. It is important that we discuss this confusion. Because, our religious extremism is also caused by the superficial understanding of “Islam.”

Definition of “Islam”

First, if “Islam” is a religion revealed to the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him , the prophets before Muhammad saw religion what? Jesus, Moses, Abraham, and other prophets of God? This is confusing. Some say, before Muhammad saw it was a “tauhied religion”.

But isn’t tauhied the root of “Islam”? Tauhied is the main principle of “Islam”. Question and answer will be even more confusing. Then someone answered, “The previous prophets embraced the religion of” Islam “which has not been perfected”. If that’s the answer, still religion “Islam”, whether it has been perfected or not.

Therefore, to understand the “Islam” as Islamism or mohammedanisme is wrong, because “Islam” is the vision of the sky is not the view of Muhammad PBUH . Understanding “Islam” as “a religion revealed to Muhammad peace be upon him ” is also wrong. Because it implies that the previous prophets do not have a religion, or do not have a religious relationship with Muhammad SAW . And it is impossible for the prophets to have unclear religion, while they always receive revelation. And the answer to “Islam” is “religion down since the time of Prophet Muhammad SAWalone “made” Islam “a new religion, born 500 years after Christ. Compare with other religions such as Buddhism who was born 500 years BC, or Hindus who were born around 2500 years BC can be even older than that.

Claiming “Islam” as a “religion of Muhammad peace be upon him alone”, made Muhammad SAW apart by religious prophets of God before. In short, making the “Islam” as a “religion since the time of Muhammad peace be upon him ” cause “Islam” became the new religion, the religion yesterday afternoon. While the definition of “religion” itself is actually very trap. Because “religion” is often identified with the teachings brought by someone to a certain nation and at a certain time.

While “Islam” as we will discuss next, it is not. “Islam” has a universal meaning. Therefore, it is necessary to understand “Islam” in its most basic sense. One is by returning to the various explanations given by the Bible.

What does the Qur’an say about “Islam”?

In the Qur’an, “Islam” is mentioned in various words. Among them: “Muslimatan”, “Muslimun”, “Muslimin”, “Muslimaini”, “Aslama”, “Aslamtu”, and “Aslim”. Everything is translated as “surrender”, “surrender”, “submissive”, or “obedient” (English: Submission to the will of God ). From the verses of the Qur’an then we get a number of important information, that:

  • All prophets and followers are ” Islam”This can be read in QS. alBaqarah: 128 and 131 (Ibrahim and Ishmael “Islam”), alBaqarah: 132-133 (Ibrahim and his sons, and Ya’qub and his descendants “Islam”), QS. Aali Imran: 52 and QS. alMaidah: 111 (Jesus and his followers “Hawariyyun” Islam “), QS. Jonah: 72 (Noah “Islam”), QS. alBaqarah: 136 and QS. Aali Imran: 84 (all “Islam” prophets and apostles);
  • All the ancient scriptures teach ” Islam”As it says in alMaidah: 44 (The Torah and the prophets, the pious and the Jewish priests teach “Islam”).

Thus it is clear that all prophets and apostles have a “surrender attitude” and bring the teaching of “surrender” to Allah swt , “Islam”. On this basis Ahmad Deedat (1918-2005), explains:

“If Moses had come back to life, then he would be brought up in our midst to ask one question,” O Prophet Moses, what religion do you belong to? ” What was Moses’ response? Will He answer the religion of “Judaism” as the Jews claim? Of course not. Moses had never heard the word in his life and neither was the name “religion of religion” in his books, either in the Torah or in the Talmud. If so, what is the religion of Moses? The answer He would give is, “My religion is a religion of self-surrender, submission, submissiveness and devotion to the one and only God.” One word for this beautiful and long answer, in Arabic is called “Islam”.

One day when Jesus returned to this world, we would have a chance to ask, “O Holy Spirit, what is your religion?” May we hear Jesus answer ‘Christian’? No, because the word ‘Christian’ never existed when Jesus was alive. The word comes from the Greek ‘Christos’, a translation of ‘alMasikh’ or ‘blessed’. Christ is the Greek name given to Jesus after Jesus no longer exists. So it is not possible that Jesus was a Christian because this religion was not named by Jesus, but by others he had never known. So what is the religion of Christ? If we ask him this, then the answer is, “My religion is a religion of submission, devotion and submissiveness and sincerity to the Most Merciful, Most Merciful God”.Islam, Judaism and Christianity, a Lecture in Geneve ).

So, all the prophets are “Islam” and bring the teaching of “submission” to Allah swt .

Everything in Nature is “Islam”

The next question is, are only humans “Islam”? It turns out that the Qur’an provides interesting information: “So are they looking for submission ( din ) other than to Allah? Whereas it is to Him to surrender himself ( aslama ) to all that which is in the heavens and the earth, whether by joy or compulsion and only to Allah they are returned. ” (Surah Aali ‘Imran -3: 83).

فَغَيْرَ دينِ اللَّهِ يَبْغُونَ وَلَهُ ُْلْمَ مَنَ فْي السِمَّاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْأَضِ طَوْعًا وََرَهًا وَإِلَيْهِ يِرْجَعُ

This verse explains that everything in the universe, whether in heaven or on earth, without exception, likes or dislikes, is “Islam” (surrender to Allah swt ). Not just humans; the whole universe (sun, moon, stars, angels, spirits, mountains, rocks and so on) all, like to dislike, without exception, to live and flourish according to the law of Allah Almighty ( sunnatullah ).

Take a look, all the objects in the universe rotate from right to left – counterclockwise. Just like the people who are doing tawaf , around the Kaaba. Everything in the universe is “submissive”, “bound” to God’s laws that rule the universe. Everything will also die and return only to Allah SWT . Likewise, accountability, like it or not, will also be held accountable before Him. This attitude of “surrender”, “submission”, and “submissiveness” in total to the laws of life and death that has been established by God is called “Islam”.

“Islam”, Universal Religion

From all the explanations above, it can be concluded that “Islam” is a universal teaching or religion . There are at least four arguments to explain this.

First , as mentioned in the previous verse (Surah Ali ‘Imran -3: 83) the entire contents of nature, human and non-human, are naturally “Islamic”. Namely, obeying the laws that have been established by God (natural law).

Second , the teachings of Muhammad PBUH is not a new doctrine, but rather the continuation of the teachings of previous prophets. All prophets teach the same thing, namely tauhied [1] , only the shari’ah is different. Many of the teachings of Muhammad PBUH is also a continuation of spirituality Ibrahim [2] , as well as the continuity of the Shari’a Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus [3] .

Third , unlike previous prophets were mandated task limited to the specific teaching of “Islam” continued Muhammad saw is global, as a mercy for all creatures: ” And We have not sent you except for (a) mercy for the know ” (QS. al-Anbiya -21: 107).

Fourth, “Islam” itself is a word that is “universal”. Compare with other religions . Judaism , for example, is taken from the word “Judah” the son of the Prophet Ya’qub. That is, Judaism is a religion that exists because of Judah. Those who were before Judah and who had no connection with Judah, were not part of this religion. Therefore, Judaism is very exclusive. Then Buddha (enlightened), taken from the name or title for “Siddharta Gautama”. This religion identifies itself with its founder. That is, before its founder existed, this religion did not exist. Thus, this religion becomes a limited religion because there is an initial deadline. Likewise with Confucius , Zoroaster and other beliefs that limit themselves with the name of the bearer of his teachings.

While Hinduism limits itself to geographical areas. Hinduism is taken from the word “Shindu” ie those who occupy the Indus region in northwestern India. The word “India” is taken from this name, an area where this religion was originally practiced. As such, Hinduism is a religion that is synonymous with the Hindustani region.

What about “Islam”? We find no relation of this name to the name of someone or a place. “Islam” is not exclusive doctrine introduced by Muhammad PBUH . So “Islam” cannot be narrowed down to ” mohammedanism ” or ” mohammedans “, a narrow terminology that is trying to be popularized in various religious dictionaries. “Islam” is also not another name for “Arabic”. “Islam” is “Islam”, a universal concept to describe the attitude of “submission”, “obedience” or “submission” to the One God, by anyone, anywhere and anytime.

These four universality meanings of “Islam” are the reason why religion which is practiced by almost a quarter of the world’s population (1.6 billion people) is called “Universal Islam”. And everything about “Islam”, in its ultimate form, is contained in various records of revelation, suhuf, and books of celestial religions. For this last age, all the revelations have been updated in the Qur’an. This book contains various concepts and practices of “surrender”, both universal theoretical (beliefs about existence or creed ) and practical universal (about shari’a and morals ).

Everything about beings (God, nature and humans) and various “surrender” attitudes both physically and mentally towards these forms are contained in the Qur’an. Islam is all about Qur’anic Values . Everything (general principles) about “Islam” is in the Koran. Thus, “Islam” is “Revelation” [4] . “Islam” as a revelation ( dienullah ) has a completeness that is a common human need, which can be divided into three dimensions:

  • Aqeedah(“theoretical faith”: concepts and beliefs about God, nature and humans);
  • Sharia( “practical flesh”: procedures related to God, nature and man: worship mahdah / personal and religious ghairu mahdah / social / muamalah or public good );
  • Morals(“practical inner”: morality, ethics and aesthetics of relations with God, nature and humans).

In the first and third dimensions (creed and morality) there is the “inner meaning” (esoteric) of “Islam”. Whereas in the second (Shari’ah), there is a “birth meaning” of “Islam”.

Dimension “Esoteric  of Islam is a  faith” and “good character  . The phrase “innaddina ‘is probably Islamic” is often quoted to explain “what is Islam” . In this verse there is the esoteric (inner) meaning of surrender or “Islam”:

“Indeed compliant ( din ) is right in the sight of Allah ( Indal ) is to surrender to Him ( Islam ) …” (QS. Aali ‘Imran -3: 19).

On the substantive side, the esoteric , “Islam” is a “religious” or “spiritual compliant attitude” of th surrender -an total to God, in the form of the faith (imani) and morality (inner / spiritual).

First , in terms of faith , “surrender” (Islam) or not someone to the Truth depends on the extent to which he has confidence about the existence of existence, especially God (theoretical faith). Thus, the correct “obedience” ( din ) by God’s side is very dependent on the extent to which a person has a conscious awareness of all existence including God. It is not possible for someone to be said to have a “religion” or “true obedience” ( din ), if an attitude of surrender to God is only fanaticism or bandwagon.

An attitude of resignation to truth (“Islam”) must begin with ma’rifah , that is, a correct understanding of all existence including the Absolute Being. Because the universal view of faith is a system of knowledge about all existence ( worldview ), the ma’rifah towards the Divine Worldview is built with the help of revelation (Al-Qur’an) and the use of all potential intellect. A person can only be said to have become a Muslim when he has faith, or already has a rational (theoretical) belief system about all existence, including oneself and God. In a hadith referred to as “know oneself and God”, man ‘arafa nafsahu’ arafa rabbahu .

In this rational faith there is a correct understanding of God and all the laws ( qadar ) that govern nature and man. From this rational awareness of the tauhied grows the awareness of the justice of God that guides men through His prophets. There is also another rational awareness of the warmth of the world as well as the perfection and eternal happiness (of the hereafter) that are the goal of all servants. All of these are “general principles of the faith” ( ushul or creed) about God, nature and man.

Secondly , from a creed or a rational view of faith towards God, nature and humanity, morals are built which is also a form of ” spiritual submission” or “inner practical attitude” towards all existence, especially God. Here are examples of morals born from rational-spiritual awareness (fitrah) of the existence of God, nature, and humans:

Demonstrating grace ( thanks ), happy to Allah ( blessing ), think positive ( husnudzan ), trust ( trust ), always remember him ( dhikr ), trying to get closer ( taqarrub ), tends to the behavior of nature ( khair ), has a rational consciousness ( knowledge ), speed and inner clarity to understand ( fahm ), inner obedience to truth ( taslim ), formal obedience to truth (istislam ), fear and love of Him ( righteous ), fear of Allah ( sermon ), independent soul (sincere ), good behavior ( courtesy ), disgusting ( dhalim ), balanced personality ( fair ), not excessive ( tabzier ), not showing off ( riya ‘ ), not eating non-rights ( usury ), responsible ( taklif ) , chastity ( iffah ), do not love or adrift heart with the world ( asceticism ), love of perfection and beauty ( alkamal wal jamal ), full of hope in the mercy of Allah (r do ‘ ), refrain from complaining and anxiety inwards ( sabr ) , keep searching and digging ( science), strong and careful in dealing ( prayer ), humble ( tawadhu ), patient and wise ( hilm ), tolerant ( courteous ), friendly and harmonious ( rifq ), helpful ( ta’awun ), member ‘ afkan ( shafh ), silent from unkind speech ( shamt ), harmless ( facade ), accepting truth and affirming it firmly and surely ( tasdiq ), compassionate and loving ( ra’fah and rahmah ) and many others; including imitating the best qualities of the Supreme Being such as rahman , uterus , and so on.

Our “surrender” to nature and man is in principle a part of “obedience” to God and His laws. The true essence of surrender is to God. However, we acknowledge the existence of the sunnatullah ( qadar ) that governs nature and society. For example, there are some laws of physics that we have to obey because they are given by nature , God’s provision. So is our “submission” (submission) to the laws that govern society, including the values ​​of sincerity , justice and goodwill that are the foundation of civilization’s progress; in principle is also a form of our “submission” to the law of tasyri’iuniversal God.

However, “surrender” to these laws does not mean “slavery”, but rather an acknowledgment of their objective nature. Because of their objectivity these laws can be understood and utilized for human progress.

The meaning of “Exoteric” from Islam is  Shari’a”

Besides “Islam” in the esoteric (inner) meaning it means “resignation” or “submissive submissively sincere” to God Almighty , “Islam” is also defined in an exoteric (born) sense . Basically the same, QS. Ali Imran verse 19, which is interpreted directly: “Surely the religion beside God is the religion of Islam”. 

Here, “Islam” is defined as a “formal religion” with a variety of “outward sharia”; it is no longer limited to “inner surrender” in the form of “faith” ( creed ) and “spirituality / inner attitude” ( morals ). In this exoteric sense , “Islam” is a “religious institution” with a number of “physical rituals”. In this context, one’s Islam is measured by obedience to various forms of formal worship. For example, a person can only be declared legitimate “Muslim” if he has “uttered” two sentences of shahada, as well as carrying out a number of other “formal obligations”. There is no blame for this technical understanding of Islam , because in a Hadith it says:

“Islam is your witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is a Messenger of Allah, you perform prayers, perform charity, perform Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the House” (HR. Muslim).

There are certain worldly benefits from the technical-formal-bureaucratic meaning of “Islam”. For example, someone has the right to be treated according to Islamic laws as long as he has an Islamic KTP. For the certainty of the application of Islamic law and laws, “formalization of Islam” as a religion is felt to be a necessity. Although in the understanding of Sufism, a Muslim cannot be called “Islam” if he still pollutes his soul with corruption, manipulation, crimes against humanity, and other immoral behavior. How can it be said to have “surrendered” to God Almighty sincerely ( Islam) -While daily prayers and prayers; while his brain, heart and behavior are still subject to vanity, evil, vice, disgust, disgust, suspense, infidelity, hypocrisy, and ignorance. Because in Islam , Islam is more important than substance over form . Play Islam only has value if accompanied by reasonable knowledge and awareness of mental (beliefs) and based on the values of courtesy (probation).

Ideally, the totality of Islam is the integration of inner and outer: aqeedah, sharia and morals. But in a partial perspective of the Shari’a, the “brand of Islam” has been carried by someone if the religious “outer skin” (such as shahada) has been carried out. And it is considered to be more ‘Islamic’ if all the components of shari’ah (prayer, fasting, zakat, hajj) are carried out. In this context of sharia, “the true religion” is “a religion that is formally” named – or has Islamic law . Namely religion that worship mahdhah and worship muamalah operationalized based on formal Islamic laws (Al-Qur’an, as-Sunnah, and thoughts / results of ijtihad from both).

“ Perfect Religious Islam ” ( Kaffah ): Harmonist Group of Opposite Values

As God is called the Perfect Reality – because in Himself lies the perfect combination of two sets of traits which contradict jalaliyah (firm) and jamaliyah (gentle) – “Islam” too. The Qur’an becomes a great book when harmoniously integrating all conflicting values ​​(esoteric-exoteric, feminine-masculine, jamal-jalal) as a manifestation of its personality. So that “Islam” becomes dinul kamil , a religion that combines ‘various doors’ or ‘small roads’ into ‘one door’ or ‘big road’ which directs and facilitates people to Truth.

There are scholars who interpret “Islam” only in the esoteric aspect (attitude “surrender” from the mind). Others define it in a rigid exoteric understanding (as “formal religion”). Included in the first group are certain Sufi scholars. Religion for them more to the personal dimension, personal affairs. They tend to approach Isa “love”. For them, “Islam” is only a tariqah for perfecting personal morals, not for regulating the public sphere. In the midst of this group there are strange people, an attitude of “surrender” is considered sufficient only by ‘eling’ (dhikr of the heart) and has a good personality; without the need to formally worship.

As for the second group, which consists of certain Shariah scholars, “Islam” is a set of sharia laws from the theoretical to the practical details of its jurisprudence . For them, religion is only limited to the “rules” of individual and social life that have the power to coerce and punish society. They adopted the “hard” and “strict” nature of the teachings of Musa. In this group there are extreme, consider “Islam” is enough only with outermost practices, and considers asceticism or mysticism (mystical practices) as superstitious, superstitious, or heresy.

As a result, neither of these two radical poles reached ideological perfection . For that reason, “Islam” is a collection of all dimensions of “birth” ( Shari’ah: individual worship and worship of Muamalah) and “inner” ( faith / tauhied imani, as well as practical morals ). It is this group of the whole dimensions of ‘Moses’ and ‘Jesus’ that forms “perfect Islam” [5] , kaffah Islam [6] , “Islam” as opposed to the seal of the prophets . [7] In his “Islam” Muhammad saw , the two major currents of tauhied (morality and sharia) combined that made “Islam” what we today call “Islam”inner and dhahir , Sufi and Shariah , ‘personal religion’ as well as ‘mainstream national politics and economy’. Leaving one side will make our “Islam” defective.

Man himself as the best creation of God is a collection of duality (“divinity”): “spirit” and “material”, “inner” and “outer”, “inner” and “self”, “yin” and yang “,” feminine ” ”And“ masculine, ”“ passive, ”and“ active. ” It is this harmonious group of opposites that make up the human body .

“Islam” is also , in fact , a group of two opposites: the “passive side” (inner) and the “active side” (self) (of the Qur’an) . On the one hand, “Islam” has the meaning of ‘passive’: “submissive” or “surrender” to Allah swt . That is, in the ascent to perfection and happiness, having achieved the true worldview , the rational choice is to adhere to the doctrines of the creed (alQur’an). To be a good Muslim is to be ‘passive’, ‘silent’: unable to defy God’s guidance and commands. In this regard , “Islam” is understood as “the religion of the imani doctrine”. His people were built up to be a team of devout, disciplined and obedient (love) to the Most High.

On the other hand, “Islam” is understood as “Shari’a” and “Tariqat” which means “path” to the fountain. As a ‘road’, certainly never expected the people who are above it to have a passive attitude, because it will be crushed by the wheels. In this definition, “Islam” is something dynamic. To gain knowledge and progress, every Muslim must keep moving, active, and must not be silent. Especially in the aspect of “public good” (muamalah), “Islam” is a religion of protest and change. Here, “Islam” has become an ” amali doctrinal religion  . The people are inculcated with values ​​to become ‘generals’ who lead jihad to eradicate sleaze, and actively organize the community to build good. As an “active religion”, Islamis a religion of amar ma’ruf nahi munkar, a religion of justice and goodwill , a religion of corruption.

This is the duality of “Islam”, a religion of humanity that is “passive” as well as “active”. ‘Passive’ in understanding, and ‘active’ in searching. ‘Passive’ (receptive) does not mean ‘total passivity’ in the negative sense (apathy), but rather “the power to receive”. [8] ‘Active’ also does not mean “showing off”, but rather “the power to give”. Passive and active are essentially the same, depending on one’s readiness to get started. Just like talking or pondering, the value is the same, depending on the situation and needs.

It is this balance of two ‘passive’ and ‘active’ behaviors that perfects one’s ‘Islam’. Because you will never hear the ‘voice of God’ if you talk too much. Humans will also never hear you if you stay quiet. This is “Islam”, the religion of the Kaaba . A religion that is at a point of equilibrium, which reconciles or reconciles various opposite ‘angles’ or ‘poles’.

‘Passive’ and ‘active’ are two complementary elements, which participate in gathering knowledge. Based on this conception, Islamic cadre cadre training can be designed. Daytime is used to reveal intellectually active-argumentative functions, the night is used for passive-contemplative enrichment, Day is strengthened by rational-philosophical (brain) methods, while night is enriched with a spiritual-mystical dimension (heart). There is a balance between the exoteric (dhahir) and esoteric (inner) dimensions.

Whereas in real life, an Islamic cadre is, ideally, an active working day – described as “roaming like a lion”. His passive night was spent in worship – described as “shedding tears before God, like a baby expecting his mother’s love.” ‘Active’ and ‘passive’. Dhahir well as mental .

Are All Religions the Same?

This question is very polemic, because it deals with the concept of “plurality” vs. “Pluralism”. If it is limited to acknowledging the existence of so many religions that appear on earth, it is called “plurality” (recognition of the diversity of religions). At this stage there is no noise. However, when assuming all the plural religions are in principle “the same” (that is, the essence is equally towards God), this is the same as acknowledging the truth of all religions, or “pluralism”. Are all religions true?

As mentioned in QS. Aali Imran -3: 19) that the true religion ( din ) beside Allah swt is the true attitude of self-surrender ( Islam ). Thus, all “religion ( din ) that” the sight of Allah Almighty is all that shows the attitude of resignation – both mental and birth- to God (in the form of beliefs, laws, and morals). Whatever the name of his religion, whoever he is, as long as he has a “submissive”, “surrender” or “surrender” attitude to Allah swt (in these three dimensions of Islam ) then everything is Islam. Thus, all religions that have the true creed, Shari’ah, and morals are Islam . So true, “all true religions” is Islam .

The question is, are all religions “true”? All religions are “the same”, apparently “yes”. Namely ‘together’ told the truth and goodness. But not all religions are equal and true. Because the measurement of truth is also measured by the integrity of ideology:

  • Have a true view of the Divine World ( creed);
  • Having obedience to run all the consequences of believing in Him in the form of ‘practical surrender’ or ‘surrender birth’ in the form of shari’a ( formal worshipand muamalah ) properly and correctly, as well as;
  • It also has a true ‘attitude of devotion’ to God ( morals).

That is, at the level of principle ( usul ) a religion must have a correct theoretical knowledge system ( faith or aqeedah ) about God, the Prophet, and Ma’ad (resurrection day). And at the practical level has physical and spiritual obedience ( Shari’a and morals ) to carry out all practices as a consequence of believing in Him.

Relating to the Divine World View of God. On this most general principle, do all religions recognize “God exists”? Maybe all answer “yes”, except the materialists. In principle, if God exists, do the religions believe that He is “One?” What about those who believe in “God a lot”, “God Three”, “God One but Three”, “God Three but One”, and so on. Can it be said that polytheism is a true religion or ideology? Of course the conception of “Three in One” experienced a deviation from the Tauhied World View, causing such religions to be in the category of “right ideology mixed wrong” to “false ideology”.

Universal view more decisive ideological “truth” of a religion is the recognition of nubuwwah, or sequence of the prophets up to Muhammad peace be upon him , including the revelation ( the book ) he carried as truth. Are all religions today had the view that Muhammad SAW was a prophet messenger of Allah swt ? If so, then the religion in principle has been updated worldview . If not, then the religion has expired(not to say “wrong”). And do all religions worship Him? If so, then ideologically practically correct. If not, then the religion is again ‘not updated’. Nor even punish ‘ infidels’ who deny Muhammad saw [9] . But it does not mean that different beliefs require us to conflict, except with those who behave deeply without regard for their beliefs.

That is why all the prophets and messengers before Muhammad peace be upon him , along with their followers, have a view of the existence of the Divine World Muhammad peace be upon him long before Muhammad saw born. The Qur’an tells how the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), knowing the coming of Muhammad peace be upon him , even though some of them cover it up:

“The people whom We have given the Scripture know about Muhammad as they know his own children. And indeed some of them conceal the truth when they know it. ” (QS. AlBaqarah -2: 146).

In another verse, all the prophets of old prophesied to Muhammad (peace be upon him) who would appear after them. They were informed by God, that Muhammad saw would come to justify what they had brought and to perfect their teachings.

“And when Allah made a covenant with the Prophets:” Verily, whatever I give you in scripture and wisdom then comes to you an apostle who justifies what you have, but you will truly believe in him and help him. ” God said: “Do you recognize and accept my covenant in this regard?” They replied: “We acknowledge.” Allah says: “Then watch (the prophets) and I will be a witness (with you)” (QS. Aali Imran -3: 81).

Earlier peoples, such as the faithful followers of Jesus, recognized the figure of the Prophet and the last Prophet named Ahmad (Muhammad):

“And (remember) when Jesus, the Son of Mary, said:” O Children of Israel, verily I am the messenger of God, confirming the book before me, the Torah and proclaiming glad tidings to an Apostle who shall come after me, whose name is Ahmad . ” So when the Apostle came to them with clear evidence, they said: “This is true magic” (QS, asShaf -61: 6).

Even Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) and the Hindu scriptures recognize apostolic Muhammad peace be upon him as a prophet of the end times [10] . The ancient prophets and apostles who were scattered in various places [11] , most of whom are not mentioned in the Qur’an [12] , with their own books [13] , delivered in the language of their people [14] , acknowledge Muhammad’s letters. saw . A hadith explains the many prophets and apostles, and the scriptures they carry:

Abu Dzar – may Allah have mercy on him – said, “When I entered the mosque, the Prophet was sitting alone. So I took advantage of His solitude and asked, “O Messenger of God! How many prophets are there? ” He replied, “124,000”. I asked, “How many apostles are you?” The Messenger replied, “There are all 313.” I asked again, “Who was the first prophet?” He replied, “Adam.” I ask again, “Is he an apostle among the prophets?” He replied, “Yes, God created it with His [His] power and blew it out of His spirit.” Then he goes on to say, “O Abu Dzar, the 4 prophets among the Syrians are Syrians; Adam, Shits, Idris and Noah, greetings to them. While 4 of them are Arabs: Hud, Shalih, Shu’aib and Prophet Muhammad. The first prophet of the Children of Israel was Moses and the last of them was Jesus, and there were 600 prophets among them. ” I said, O Messenger of Allah, how many books has Allah sent down? ” He replied, “104 books. He brought down 50 sages to Syith, 30 to Sethis, and 20 to Ibrahim. He also decrees the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms, and the Furqan. ” [15]

But many of the books and teachings of the previous prophets were rejected and distorted by his followers [16] . Most of them have fallen into shirk, denying the existence of the One God. Some raise angels as gods or children of God [17] . Not only do they dare to reject Muhammad peace be upon him and the truth of the Qur’an brought, they even dare and never killed their own prophets [18] .

For all the prophets and their followers, the recognition of the existence of Muhammad PBUH is an indicator of the faith. Because Muhammad SAW is the peak or the nature of prophecy. All previous prophets are part of the image of Muhammad PBUH . Then denying it is kufr. While praying and praising him in the form of prayer, as instructed by God, including the ideological practical dimension of faith. A hadith explains:

“More than anything else, I look like Adam. But Abraham, above all else, looks just like me. His attitude towards people is just like my attitude. God, from his’ Throne, gave me ten names and told the good news of my coming to each of His apostles. In the Torah, and in the Bible, He mentioned my name and taught me good and interesting words. He raised me up in his heavens, and named me by his own name. He called me ‘Muhammad’, while He himself was ‘Mahmud’. And my seed is taken from the best of my people. And in the Torah I call ‘Ahid’, because through monotheism He forbids my body to touch the fire of hell. In the Bible He calls me ‘Ahmad’, for I am the glory of the inhabitants of heaven (rather than the inhabitants of the earth). He made my people ‘hamidin’ (people who praise me). In Psalms (Psalm) He calls me ‘Mahi’, because through me Allah Ta’ala abolished idol worship. And in the Qur’an he named me ‘Muhammad’, because on Judgment Day, the time when the decision was to be issued, all the praise for me…. ”[19].

Although denying the apostolic Muhammad peace be labeled ‘ infidel ‘, Muslims are commanded to give priority to moral and not allowed to be extreme to their different beliefs [20] . Although different, we are encouraged to build universal brotherhood . Humans are created to know each other. The most virtuous of the most virtuous – the good of faith, knowledge and charity [21] . Because the title of ‘ infidel’ is not only implanted for those who have different faiths with the Muslims. A Muslim who is not morally, morally, or disobedient to the Qur’anic values ​​is also called by Allahswt as ‘the infidels, and promised them punishment’:

وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكُمْ لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ ۖ وَلَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ َّن عَّذَابِي لَشَدِيدٌ

“Whoever is grateful to be added grace and whoever is ungrateful verily Allah is severe punishment” (QS. Ibrahim -14: 7).

Although different, everyone is encouraged to compete to do good [22] . The fact of the differences will be explained later [23] . Some scholars do not even dare to blame if there are people who still follow the precepts and rules of the ancient prophets. We do not know the reality of every person’s existence by God. Anyone who believes in Allah Almighty , to the end and always doing good, of course, be the right of Allah Almighty to reward [24] .

So in starting da’wah, what must be put forward is morals , such as finding “points of similarity” ( sentences sawa) , not differences [25] . Use wise methods and good approaches [26] . We must not force people to obey, because some people are arrogant even though they already know the truth [27] . If Allah swt will, of course all be faithful [28] . But God Almighty has given everyone reason and hearts as the potential to understand the truth [29]. Everyone is given the freedom to follow or reject the truth. It is on this principle that in the hereafter people are rewarded or punished.

Therefore, the practice of religion must be in balance. On the one hand, we are encouraged to be tolerant and even kind to those who share our beliefs [30] . We are only commanded to be stern and hard-hearted toward those who practice disbelief again and again [31] . Thus, Islam recognizes the existence of “plurality” or diversity, which is the natural emergence. In the plurality of religions there is definitely something right and something is wrong. Rationally we can expose ourselves to being ‘wrong’. But in fact, is the right of Allah Almighty to decide. ___________________


[1] [1] ” And We did not send an apostle before you, but We revealed to him:” For there is none but me ; [2] ” Verily, this is the religion of you all; the one religion and I am your Lord, then worship me ”(QS. alAnbiya -21: 92); [3] ” And We sent unto them, a messenger from among themselves, who said:” Worship Allah, all of you, and there is none other than Him . Then why are you fearless? ” (QS. AlMukminun -23: 32).

[2] “Say:” Surely my Lord has led me in a straight path, (that is) the true religion, the religion of Abraham , and that Abraham was not among the heathen “(QS. AlAn’am -6: 161 ); [2] “Then We revealed to you (Muhammad):” Follow the religion of Abraham a good man. ” and he is not among them that associate with God ”(QS. anNahl -16: 123); [3] “And fight in the way of Allah with true jihad. He has chosen you and He has never made for you in your religion a straitjacket. (Follow) the religion of your parents Abraham. He (Allah) has called you all the Muslims in the past, and (so) in this (Qur’an), so that the Messenger may be a witness against you and that you may be witnesses to all mankind, so pray: Exercise charity and hold on to the ropes of Allah. He is your Protector, so He is the best Protector and the best Helper ”(QS al-Hajj -22: 78).

[3] “He has given you the knowledge of what He has revealed to Noah, and what We have revealed to you, and what We have warned of Abraham, Moses and Jesus ,” Strengthen your religion and do not divide it. It is very hard for the religious people you call upon them. Allah appeals to the religion of those whom He wills and guides to (His) religion those who return (to Him) ”(QS. AsSyuura -42: 13).

[4] ‘Notes’ additional sky teachings also include the personality of Muhammad SAW (Assunnah). But he was gone. The Sunnah is an additional guide, the ‘living example’ of the values ​​of the Qur’an. But if there is a sunnah or a hadith that is opposite to the Qur’an, we are told to choose the Qur’an. Because the level of validity of the Sunnah or hadith varies. Basically there is no difference between the content of the Qur’an with the personality of Muhammad PBUH . It’s just that the pathway causes changes, differences, even falsification of the sunnah. Only the text of the Qur’an is guaranteed authenticity.

[5] ” … This day have I perfected for you your religion, and I have both ends meet to ni k mat me, and whom I have ridhai Islam as your religion … ” (QS. AlMaidah -5: 3).

[6] “O you who believe! Enter into the Qur’an, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan because Satan is a great enemy for you”

[7] “Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah is the All-Knowing of All Things. ”QS. alAhzab -33: 40).

[8] L. Bakhtiar. 2008. Knowing the Teachings of the Sufis: from the Maqam-Maqam to the Great Work of the Sufi World , Pemj. Purwanto, e.g. 41-44. Marja Publisher: Selling.

[9] [1] “Say: ‘If you truly love Allah, follow me (Muhammad) , for Allah will love and forgive your sins. Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. [2] “Say: Obey God and His Messenger ; if you turn away, surely Allah does not love the disbelievers ”(QS. Ali ‘Imran -3: 31-32).

[10] Muhammad is in various Buddhist books in various names, such as: “Antim Buddha” (the last wise man) and “Maitreya” (merciful). While in the Hindu Samveda the book is known as “Ahamidhi” and “Girish” (enlightened people on the mountain). Atharvaveda calls it “Mamaha”. In various other Hindu mantras it is called “Narashangsa” (praiseworthy), “Antim Rishi” (the last wise man), “Kalki Avatar” (the end-time wise man). Both in the Vedas and Puranas, Muhammad’s features are given in detail, such as: born in “Shambal” (near the water – the age of Zamzam), his father named “Visnu Yash” (servant of God / Abdullah), and so on.

[11] [1] Verily there came to you an apostle of your own people , heavy with your sufferings, longing for (faith and safety) for you, most merciful to the believers “(QS. At verse 9: 128) ; [2] Every people has an apostle ; so when their messenger came, the matter was decided between them with justice and they (the least) not be persecuted “(QS. Yunus -10: 47), [3] And we have sent among every nation(Worship): ‘Worship Allah, and stay away from Allah’, then among those who are guided by Allah and there are those who have certainly misunderstood him. So walk the earth and see how the end will come. ” (QS. AnNahl -16: 36; [4] “We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner.” And not had a warner hath passed among them a warner “(QS. AlFathir -35: 24).

[12] The number of prophets and apostles has been sent by God to the earth. While we know only about 25 of them:

[1] “And there are some of the apostles whom We have given you before, and there are some of those whom We did not give to you. And to Moses, God spoke directly ”(QS. AnNisa -4: 164); [2] “And verily we sent messengers before thee (Muhammad), among whom we told you and some that we did not tell you …” (QS. AlMukmin -40: 78).

[13] “And verily We have sent Messengers before you, and We have given them wives and offspring. And there is no right for a Messenger to bring a verse (miracle) except by Allah’s permission. For every age there is a Book (certain) ”(QS. ArRa’du -13: 38).

[14] “We have not sent a messenger, but in the language of his people , that he may give them light. So Allah misleads whom He wills, and guides whom He wills. And He is the All-Powerful, All-Wise ”(QS. Ibrahim -14: 4).

[15] “Al-Qishal”, 2, 525 in MM Qaim. The Gospel of Ali , p. 25-26, Photographer: Jakarta, 2005. Similar Hadiths are narrated by Ahmad and narrated by Shaykh Albani. However, there are other opinions of some scholars who state that we do not know the number of Prophets and Apostles.

[16] [1] “Do you still expect them to believe you, when some of them hear the word of God and change it after they understand it? (QS. AlBaqarah -2: 75); [2] “They are Jews, they change the word from their places. They say: We hear, but we do not want to. And (they say): `Hear ye, may you hear nothing. And (they say): `Raa ina` by twisting his tongue and denouncing religion. If they say: ‘We hear and obey, and hear, and pay attention to us’, then it would be better for them and more just, but Allah would curse them for their disbelief. They do not believe except in very thin faith ”(QS. AnNisa ‘-4: 46).

[17] ” And they say:” The Beneficent has taken (children) “, the Glory of God. Actually, (the angels) are the servants who starts i will “(QS. Anbiya -21: 26).

[18] And when it is said to them: Believe in the Qur’an which Allah hath sent down. They said: ‘ We believe only in what is revealed to us .’ And they disbelieved in the Qur’an which was afterwards revealed, while the Qur’an was (the Book) right; that justifies what they have. Say: ‘Why did you kill the prophets of Allah when you were believers? (QS. AlBaqarah -2: 91).

[19] YT Al-Jibouri. 2003. The Concept of God According to Islam , print 1, p. 555-556. Lantern Publisher: Jakarta.

[20] “Lumbeum dininikum wikiinin” (QS. Al-Kafir-106: 6).

[21] “O mankind, indeed We created you from man and woman and made you nations and tribes, that you might know one another.” Indeed , the most honorable among you in the sight of Allah is the most fearful . Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Knowing ”(QS al-verse-49: 13).

[22] “…. If Allah wills, He will surely make you a people, but He will test you for what He has given you, and strive to do good . Only to Allah do you return, and He will tell you what you have disputed ”(QS al -aida-5:48).

[23] “For every people we have appointed certain laws that they make, then never disobey you in this matter and call upon the (religion) of your Lord. Truly you are on the straight path. And if they contradict you, then say: “Allah knows best what you do. Allah will judge between you on the Day of Judgment what you used to disagree with ”(Qur’an al-Hajj -22: 67-69).

[24] [1] “Indeed, believers, Jews, Christians, and Sabiin, whoever (among them) believes in Allah and the Last Day and do good, there will be reward for them in the sight of their Lord, there is no fear in them, and they do not grieve ”(QS. alBaqarah -2: 62); [2] “Indeed, believers and Jews and Sabiin and Christians, whoever believes in Allah, the Last Day and the Beneficent, will have no concern for them and they will not grieve” (QS. Al -aida-5: 69).

[25] “Say, O ye books! Come here! To the same sentence between us and you, “that is, we should not worship but to Allah, and do not associate with Him, and do not make some of us to others other than God. And if they turn away, say: Witness ye;

[26] ” Bring men to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good teaching, and encourage them in a good way . Indeed, your Lord is the one who knows more and more of those who have strayed from His path and He who knows those who are being led astray ”(QS. AnNahl-16: 125).

[27] “ There is no compulsion to obey (Islam); indeed, the way is clear from the way. Therefore, whoever disbelieves in Thaghut and believes in Allah, then he is bound to a very strong knot which will never break. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing ” (QS. AlBaqarah -2: 256).

[28] ” And if your Lord wills, all the inhabitants of the earth will believe . Are you then compelling people to be believers? ” (QS. Jonah -10: 99).

[29] “Then Allah hath inspired in the soul (path) of evil and fear  (QS. As -yam -91: 8).

[30] ” Allah does not forbid you to do good and be fair to those who do not attack you because of your religion and do not expel you from your country. Indeed, Allah loves those who b Happens all the time fair “(QS. AlMumtahanah -60: 8).

[31] [1] ” Muhammad is the messenger of Allah and those who are with him are harsh against the disbelievers , but in their love for one another, you see them kneeling and bowing down to seek the bounty of Allah and His will “ (QS) Al-Fath -48: 29); [2] And those Jews and Christians will never be pleased with you until you want to follow millah (the teachings of) them “(QS. AlBaqarah -2: 120); [3] ” Verily Allah forbid you to make friends with those who oppose you for religionand expel you from your land, and help (others) expel you. and whoever makes them friends, then they are the wrongdoers ” ( QS. al-Ummah -60: 9); [4] “You will find the strongest enmity against the believers, the Jews and those who associate with God ” (QS al -aida-5: 82); [3] “It is allowed (to fight) for those who are at war, because they were actually persecuted. And verily Allah is the Almighty to help them. (that is) those who have been driven out of their hometown for no good reason, except because they say: “Our Lord is God only.” And if God had not rejected (violence) some people with others, it would have demolished the Christian monasteries, churches, Jewish houses of worship and mosques, in which many are called the name of God. Surely Allah will help those who help (His religion). Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Powerful ”(QS al-Hajj -22: 39-40).

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