Educational teaching process of the elderly. Movement of the cognitive activity of the students under the direction of the teacher, towards the mastery of knowledge, skills, habits and the formation of a scientific conception of the world. This process is more complex in the third age due to amnestic dysfunction, so it must be developed with teaching means.
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- 1 Teaching-learning process
- 1 Operational components
- 2 Educational work
- 3 Learning of the elderly
- 4 Sources
The teaching-learning process occurs in a dialectical unit: the instruction and education of the learners, between what is taught by qualified personnel and what the student learns. It is necessary to clarify that from the perspective of Pedagogy, the teaching-educational process achieves its objective when the student appropriates the content; This process is somewhat more complex when it comes to the elderly, since in both normal and pathological aging, amnesic dysfunction is the most common cognitive alteration, to the detriment of the quality of life and the ability of new learning and in the evocation of valuable information.
This determines the need for constant improvement in the work system, content, means and forms of organization of the education of the elderly ; in a way that leads to fulfilling the basic objective of the teaching-educational process that develops with these people and is developed with the help of some objects which are called teaching aids; seventh component of the educational teaching process.
Form, method and medium are the operational components of the teaching-educational process; they interrelated with each other form a dialectical triad in which the method expresses the most essential aspects of the dynamics of the process; and the form and the medium its phenomenal expression, where it is reflected that the medium is the vehicle through which the method manifests itself, that is, that it is the material carrier of the method.
The computerization process of society has posed challenges to education in general, efficiently assimilating and exploiting modern resources. The teaching of the elderly is included in all the projects to bring the New Information and Communication Technologies (NTIC) to the curricula of the different educational institutions.
In educational work with the elderly, it is necessary to insist on acceptance and the appropriate approach to retirement, considering that it is a delicate stage, capable of generating crises of serious consequences with irreversible damage to the psyche of the individual.
It is necessary to reorganize at the right time, the orientation of activities towards interests different from those that make up working life. The use of free time can become a conflict for the retired elderly person, who has no obligations at work and does not know how to fill that gap.
The computerization program of Cuban society or the new literacy is designed by stages and priorities. Heriberto Rosabal points out “Although the economic blockade hinders the speed of these programs, it is already possible to see notable advances in education, health, banking and basic industry.”
Older adult learning
In the learning of the older adult it must be taken into account that the elderly need more time. Learning at this stage must be individualized to achieve its objective since older adults have intellectual limitations. His intelligence is crystallized and not fluid, which is why his way of learning varies, it has been proven that with exercise you can learn at this stage of life.
Short-term memory is affected, fixation memory manifests itself as a training problem, if you stop talking, reading , and making evaluations because you have left the productive life, you become a retired individual who isolates himself.
Speed is shown differently due to its decline; Motivation is the main characteristic of learning for this age group. In the case of the Cuban older adult, their desire to do and reintegrate into society is expressed, it is strongly encouraged with each task, and for this it enhances the affective.
In the affective motivational sphere, regularities are established, while the personality of the older adult is the result of the experiences lived by each individual subject in the previous periods of their life cycle, however it is possible to point out some considerations in this regard:
- The needs of older adults are expressed in knowing how to distinguish between the essential and the superfluous, and taking their conditions of existence into account as a necessity, which allows them to avoid frustrations.
- In the older adult, interests, as well as aspirations, may be diminished due to the relativity of the future projection of this subject, given his age. In each person, the effects of future limitation are manifested differently, a large part of adults are depressed by the time limit they have, while a significant group presents long-term plans, and another considers that their future is framed. within a narrow time frame and must be reversed with rushing tasks and immediate goals.
- It is indisputable that self-assessment and therefore self-esteem, considered as the image that one has of oneself, depend on each older adult on the aging model that he assumes, or transfers his family and social environment to him. This aging model can be one of deterioration or development, and education can contribute to this.
The Cuban older adult is characterized by having an adequate school level that allows him to understand the changes and transformations that take place in the surrounding environment. He develops within the challenge of Cuban society to increase life expectancy to eighty years, and achieve it with quality of life, expressed in how that elderly person lives. It is a strategic objective of the Revolution to reach 80 years of age, with a superior quality of life.
In Cuba the school level is high, if we analyze that it was worked after the Literacy Campaign in the Battle for the 6th Grade, the Battle for the 9th Grade, and the Adult Education was systematized .
Currently, a large number of older adults are appreciated, who being retired have almost a third of their lives to live. They need, they demand, and they look for spaces of learning, of activity to remain inserted in society.
Education must be the right of all citizens, regardless of age, and for the older adult this right has special significance, since it represents an opportunity for updating, social participation and reaffirmation of its potential. For the elderly, education can contribute to the development of a culture of aging and an increase in the quality of life expressed in higher standards of health, happiness and well-being. The education of these people has its antecedents in the training of adults, which multiple authors have tried to conceptualize as a science, with its own history and development.