During the era of methods various methods and techniques of language teaching developed rapidly as researchers struggled to find evidence for the greatness of certain methods. They try hard to formulate a theory and conduct research to prove that the theory is most correct The failure to prove the effectiveness of certain methods has triggered the development of other methods, and so on (Suwarsih, 2013: 29). Each will be described as follows:
1. Audiolingual Method
From a literature review, Stern (1983: 463) found that the audiolingual method, which originated from Native Americans, has emerged with several names: aurai-oral or aural-oral method (in the fifties), audiolingual method or audiolingual method (proposed by Brooks in the year of 1964), new key method (also proposed by Brooks), audiolingual habit theory or audiolingual habit theory (compiled by Carrol in 1966). According to Celce-Murcia (2001: 7), as a reaction to the reading method and its shortcomings in oral-hearing skills, the audiolingual method is derived from the renewal movement and direct method but added features of Bloomfield’s structural linguistics (1933) and Skinner’s behavioral psychology (1957) ).
Below are presented important points of the audiolingual method which originated in Brown (2000: 96), Celce-Murcia (2001: 7), and Stern (1983: 464):
- The separation and sequencing of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) with emphasis on the basic skills of listening and speaking, while reading and writing are postponed.
- The use of dialogue as the main tool for presenting new teaching materials on the subject.
- The emphasis on certain practical techniques, imitating, memorizing, dril patterns based on the assumption that language learning is habit forming.
- The inductive teaching of grammar rules and grammatical structure arrangements by means of contrastive analysis are taught very little by one, even there is no explanation of grammar.
- Pressure on the pronunciation from the very beginning.
- Strict restrictions on vocabulary at an early stage and use of context to introduce it.
- Efforts are made to prevent mistakes by students or to ensure students produce utterances of the target language without errors. Manipulate language without paying attention to meaning and context.
- The guidance on oral target language proficiency approaches native speakers.
- Correct responses are reinforced immediately.
- Widely used ribbons, language labs, and visual aids.
Krashen (2009: 129) states that there are common audio-lingual features of language teaching. Again, there may be substantial variations in practice. Lessons usually begin with dialogue, which contains the structure and vocabulary of the lesson. students are expected to imitate the dialogue and finally memorize it (called “mem-mem”). Often, the class practices dialogue as a group, and then in small groups. The dialogue is followed by a pattern drill on the structure introduced in the dialogue. The aim of the training is to “strengthen habits”, to make “automatic” patterns.
Krashen citing the opinion of Lado (1964) noted that lingual audio pattern exercises focus students’ attention on the new structure. For example, students might think he is learning vocabulary in exercises such as:
That’s a __________. (key, knife, pencil, etc.) (as in Lado and Fries, 1958)
But in reality, according to lingual audio theory, students make automatic patterns.
2. Audiovisual method
The audiovisual method was developed in France in the fifties. He uses the scenario presented visually as the main tool to involve students in utterances and meaningful contexts. Sound recordings provide stylized dialogue and narrative commentary and an utterance is accompanied by filmstrip. In other words, visual images and oral utterances complement each other and together form semantic units. This method is used in French language courses aimed at different targets – adult beginners and children. This method is subsequently used in America, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Like the audiolingual method, the auvisual method is also suitable for beginners (Stern, 1983: 466).
3. Oral-situational methods
According to Celce-Murcia (2001: 7), the oral-situational method was developed as a reaction to the reading method with its shortcomings to emphasize verbal-hearing skills, this method was dominant in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1960s. It was derived from the renewal movement and direct method but added Firthian linguistic features and the emerging field of language pedagogy. The following are the main features of this method:
- Oral language is the main.
- All language materials are practiced verbally before being presented in written form, reading and writing are taught only after the oral basis in lexical form and grammar are formed mantab.
- Only the target language must be used in class.
- Efforts are made to ensure that the most common and most useful lexical items are presented.
- Grammatical structures are graded from simple to complex.
- New lexical items and grammar are introduced and practiced situationally (for example, at the post office, at the bank, and at the dinner table).
4. Cognitive methods
Cognitive methods look for basics in cognitive psychology and transformational grammar. This method reflects the theoretical orientation in linguistics and psychology that was initiated by Chomsky in the sixties. Diller (1978) and Stern (1983) state that this method puts pressure on the basic acquisition of language as a meaningful system and bases itself on the principles of cognitive psychology and transformational grammar.
5. Humanistic-affective method
The humanistic-affective method group was developed as a reaction to general deficiencies in affective considerations both in the audio lingual method and the cognitive method. These methods have the following features: (Celce-Murcia, 2001: 7):
- Respect is stressed on the individual (each student, also the teacher) and the role of their feelings.
- Meaningful communication for students is emphasized.
- Teaching involves a lot of work in pairs and small groups.
- Class climate is seen as more important than method.
- Peer support and interaction is seen as a need in itself.
- Learning foreign languages is seen as an experience that is self-realized.
- The teacher is a counselor or facilitator.
- The teacher should be proficient in the target language and in the mother tongue of the students considering that translation may be widely used in the initial stages to help students feel comfortable, then gradually be eliminated.
6. Understanding-based methods
The understanding-based method is based on the assumption that (a) language acquisition occurs if and only if students understand meaningful intake, and (b) the acquisition of a second or foreign language is similar to the acquisition of mother tongue. Assumptions are derived from the results of research studies in the acquisition of mother tongue (Celce-Murcia, 2001: 8, citing, for example, Postovsky, 1974; Winitz, 1981; Krashen and Terrell, 1983).
Read: Understanding Second Language Mastery
7. Understanding-based methods
The understanding-based method is based on the assumption that (a) language acquisition occurs if and only if students understand the intake of meaning, and (b) the acquisition of a second or foreign language is similar to the acquisition of mother tongue. Assumptions are derived from the results of research studies in the acquisition of mother tongue (Celle-Murcia, 2001: 8, citing for example, Postovsky, 1974; Winitz, 1981; Khrasen and Terrell, 1983).
8. PPP Method and Three Alternatives
a. PPP method
The PPP method is a variation of audiolingualism in teaching English and elsewhere (Harmer, 2007: 66). PPP as an extension of presentation, practice, and production represents three stages of learning. The teaching goes like this. At the presentation stage, the teacher introduces the situation that contextualizes the language to be taught, and then presents the language being taught. This is followed by the second stage, in which students practice language with accurate reproduction techniques such as language imitation of words, phrases, or sentences (with the lead teacher and students imitating it), individual repetition of words, phrases, or sentences (with the teacher giving examples and students mimic it), and the inducement-response dril. The results are similar to those used in the audiolingual method. However, real contextualization through the situation, more complete with the meaning of the dril rather than the substitute dril. Finally, in the production phase, students make their own sentences using a new language.
b. Alternative PPP
Three other alternatives (Harmer, 2001: 2007: 66-67) have been offered further: (1) ARC, (2) OHE or III, and (3) ESA. Each is briefly described.
a). ARC or OTK
ARC stands for Authentic Use (authentic use). Restricted use and clarification and focus, proposed by Jim Asher (1994, as cited by Harmer, 2001; 83). Authentic use (O) refers to the language used in communication activities while R / T (Restricted / limited) to the use of language in dril, jazz chant, dialogue created or guided writing, for example, and C / K (Clarification / clarification) in the language used to explain grammar, give examples, analyze mistakes, provoke or repeat something. The OTK sequence may change to KTO (old PPP) or even KOKOKT as task-based learning. So the teacher can decide on the sequence of stages to meet student learning needs.
OHE is an extension of Observe, Hypothesis, and Experiment. According to Lewis (in Harmer, 2007: 83), students should be allowed to make observations (reading or listening to language). This observation will then provoke students to hypothesize about how the language operates. Then they will conduct experiments based on that hypothesis. This procedure is similar to procedure III proposed by McCarthy and Canter as quoted by Harmer (2001). III is the extension of illustration, interaction, and induction. In the illustration stage, the teacher shows students language examples such as conversational transcripts, then in the interaction phase the teacher engages students in discovery activities and questions about the target language, for example “how are you going to write this formal verbal language test?” At the interaction stage students pay attention, that is students catch new facts about language so that induction occurs.
c). ESA (LPA)
ESA is an extension of engangge or involve study or study, and activate or activate, hereinafter abbreviated as LPA. During the teaching and learning process activities can be classified into three: involve students emotionally in what is happening, learn how things are arranged (clauses, intonation patterns, paragraphs or texts, lexical phrases). And enable students to use everything and / or whatever language they know. These three components can vary in length from five, twenty, fifty or even a hundred minutes. The teacher can change to LAP, PAL, or make the procedure longer, for example LAPALPALAL, depending on student learning needs but keep in mind that if the process is too long something should be done that can make students relax,