Yogurt

Yogurt. Dairy product of high nutritional value for human consumption .

Summary

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  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Scientific research
  • 3 Yogurt bacteria
  • 4 Benefits
  • 5 Preparation procedure
  • 6 Currently in the production of yogurt in industrial form, the following process must be followed
  • 7 Homemade food
  • 8 Sources

Origin

The adjective yogurt has its origin in the Bulgarian word jaurt .

This delicious dairy delicacy comes from the Balkan area and Asia Minor , where the nomadic tribes of the Asian communities perceived that the milk became a semi-solid mass, when transported in goatskin sacks . The contact that then took place between the milk and the goatskin, together with the heat, promoted the fermentation of the milk, through the action of acid bacteria.

The ease of transportation and conservation, as well as its nutritional properties, made this product an essential food for these peoples. Yogurt was later known in different parts of the world and was incorporated into the cuisine of numerous civilizations. In India , it was known as dahi , food that was attributed to the gods. On the other hand, in Greece , this product was used to heal stomach and intestinal problems .

Scientific investigations

Metchnikoff

Following the discoveries of Metchnikoff ( Ukrainian microbiologist and Nobel Prize  in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 ), yogurt became a popular food during the 20th century .

Metchnikoff, motivated by research on the longevity of the Balkan peoples, showed thanks to his studies, what were the effects of yogurt bacteria on intestinal flora. The results of their investigations concluded that the living organisms of this food transform lactose into lactic acid ; component that prevents the development of harmful bacteria in the intestine derived from the breakdown of food.

This researcher also found interesting nutritional properties derived from the large amount of vitamins of group B, contained in this food. In this way he demonstrated that the action on the digestive system turns yogurt into a true natural defense against all kinds of infections and diseases.

This dairy product also works by reducing cholesterol , absorbing fat more easily and balancing the intestine and controlling possible cases of diarrhea and constipation . It also minimizes the negative effects of antibiotics and protects the stomach from erosion caused by certain medications.

Yogurt bacteria

Yogurt contains a minimum of 100 million live microorganisms per gram. Only two bacteria are those of natural yogurt: lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus .

Active bacteria from yogurt to active bifidus , and l casei immunitas are not considered , although their properties are beneficial and increase the body’s ability to defend itself from external aggressions.

Active bifidus is a strain of bifidobacteria , which is incorporated into some dairy products and juices, while l casei immunitas is a lactobacillus , found in the human intestinal flora . The products with l casei immunitas that are marketed, what they do is reinforce the amount that this type of bacillus already naturally has in humans .

Associated with this topic see Cepa de yogurt .

Benefits

Obviously, one of the greatest qualities of yogurt is its significant amount of calcium , making it an essential food for strengthening bones and teeth . Its proteins , fats and carbohydrates, with a predominance of lactose , supply enough energy to the body to face the physical-mental activity.

Skim varieties are recommended in all weight loss diets, as they supply energy and basic nutrients, although they provide very few calories. Vitamins of type A and B, folic acid and the content of phosphorus , potassium , magnesium , zinc and iodine , complete the nutritional content of this essential product in the diet.

On the other hand, the lactic bacteria ( lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus ) contained in the various types of yogurt (liquid, creamy, skimmed, with fruit), which remain alive after fermentation and offer yogurt its unmistakable acidity and aroma; protect and regulate the intestinal flora .

Its beneficial properties become even more visible, if its conservation takes place at low temperature.

Preparation procedure

For the production of yogurt, acid milk fermentation is used . To pasteurized milk , previously selected cultures of lactobacillus and spreptococcus are added. Then it is left to ferment for a long period, between 6 and 23 hours. Once it reaches optimal conditions, the result is left to rest in sterile containers.

Currently in the production of yogurt in an industrial way the following process must be followed

-Select good quality fresh milk without antibiotics, without mastitis. After milking as soon as possible, a heat treatment should be carried out. – Pasteurize the milk destined for this process, it is done at 85 to 90 ° C with a retention period of 5 minutes. This heat treatment is somewhat more intense than that applied to milk for consumption, it achieves a higher viscosity and less tendency to release the whey. – The inoculation is carried out after the heat treatment, lowering the temperature to 45 and 46 ° C at this time the milk ferment is added, which is made up of lactic acid and aroma producing bacteria. Incubation is carried out for 4 to 6 hours keeping the temperature between 45 and 46 ° C from this time, we can start cooling the yogurt. – Establish the moment that its fermentation process has finished, measuring its acidity, an average of 80 degrees Dornick, if you do not have this equipment you can tell with a simple observation, on the edges of the container when a kind of aqueous liquid (not serum), on the other hand with the introduction of a spoon we can see the consistency of the dough or gel of this yogurt. – The addition of flavors and fruits is done at the end of the incubation; the gel is broken by gentle agitation, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the fruit jam, sugar, dyes, essences, flavors and preservatives are added. – Pack to later refrigerate at 4 ° C, leaving the product ready for marketing, its duration is 15 days. an average of 80 degrees Dornick, if you do not have this equipment you can tell with a simple observation, at the edges of the container when a kind of aqueous liquid (not serum) begins to come out, on the other hand with the introduction of a spoon we can see the consistency of the dough or gel of this yogurt. – The addition of flavors and fruits is done at the end of the incubation; the gel is broken by gentle agitation, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the fruit jam, sugar, dyes, essences, flavors and preservatives are added. – Pack to later refrigerate at 4 ° C, leaving the product ready for marketing, its duration is 15 days. an average of 80 degrees Dornick, if you do not have this equipment you can tell with a simple observation, at the edges of the container when a kind of aqueous liquid (not serum) begins to come out, on the other hand with the introduction of a spoon we can see the consistency of the dough or gel of this yogurt. – The addition of flavors and fruits is done at the end of the incubation; the gel is broken by gentle agitation, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the fruit jam, sugar, dyes, essences, flavors and preservatives are added. – Pack to later refrigerate at 4 ° C, leaving the product ready for marketing, its duration is 15 days. on the other hand with the introduction of a spoon we can see the consistency of the dough or gel of this yogurt. – The addition of flavors and fruits is done at the end of the incubation; the gel is broken by gentle agitation, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the fruit jam, sugar, dyes, essences, flavors and preservatives are added. – Pack to later refrigerate at 4 ° C, leaving the product ready for marketing, its duration is 15 days. on the other hand with the introduction of a spoon we can see the consistency of the dough or gel of this yogurt. – The addition of flavors and fruits is done at the end of the incubation; the gel is broken by gentle agitation, the temperature is lowered to 20 ° C and the fruit jam, sugar, dyes, essences, flavors and preservatives are added. – Pack to later refrigerate at 4 ° C, leaving the product ready for marketing, its duration is 15 days.

Homemade food

This product is much more than just a dessert , when we talk about its culinary properties . It can be delicious alone, or with dried fruit, honey , sugar , fruit, cereals or jam , but we can also use it as an ingredient in cakes, cakes and ice cream .

Yogurt is the best option to take after meals, although it is usually effective also if eaten during breakfast; since it favors the preparation of the intestine to receive food for the rest of the day. It can also be used as an ingredient in avocado , mushroom, mint , and tomato sauces ; They are used to flavor chicken , salads, cooked ham , fish and seafood , aubergines and vegetables.

 

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