The problem of water scarcity, is one of the crises that currently affects a large part of the world’s population, where its problem lies in the irrational and inefficient use of the various water sources and their sanitation causing what is known such as water scarcity or water stress, water deficit and water crisis.
In recent times, the demand for water has increased thanks to the growth of the world population, where only one person uses approximately 300 liters per day of water.
The problem of water scarcity is the lack of the resource or vital liquid to meet the demand for consumption in a region or nation. This problem is accelerating due to the increase in the use of fresh water and the depletion of it available for human consumption.
Although water scarcity may also be due to natural causes, humanity’s activities are what are causing a water crisis due to environmental pollution, armed conflicts, waste, its poor distribution and its irrational use.
It is important to know some data to analyze the problem of water scarcity such as:
- This problem affects around 2.8 billion people on all continents.
- More than 1300 million people do not have access to drinking water.
- It is estimated that approximately 70% of the fresh water goes to agriculture.
- The problem of water scarcity is intensifying in countries such as China, India and sub-Saharan Africa.
- The African continent has the largest number of countries affected by water scarcity.
- Only 0.007% of the water on Earth is potable.
- Millions of people must walk more than 12 kilometers a day to get clean water.
- Lack of drinking water causes the death of 4500 children per day.
- In China, more than 538 million people live in water stress.
- The economic shortage of water is usually the main cause in most countries due to a shortage of this resource.
- One in five developing countries will have water shortage problems before 2030
- By 2025, 26 African countries are expected to suffer from water shortages.
Likewise, the main consequences of the problem of water scarcity are:
- Increase in poverty.
- Increase in hunger
- Death of living beings.
- Lack of hygiene and environmental sanitation.
- Diseases and pathogens.
- Deterioration of the quality of life.
- Conflicts, violence and wars.
- Depletion of natural resources.
- Alteration about the environment.
- Affectation in agriculture, livestock and food security.
- Contaminated water not suitable for human consumption.
It is essential to combat pollution, global warming, climate change and the lack of environmental education in the entire population, to trigger measures to conserve natural resources and achieve the objectives of sustainable development.