Cart . Type of trolley (vehicle with two, four or more wheels, frame that supports the load and rods that allow to hook the draft). In the specific case of carts, they are narrow and long carriages, lower than others, which have a plane that extends to the lance where the yoke is held. Carts are vehicles that move by animal traction. Many times the animal chosen to pull a cart is a horse , although oxen , mules , asses can also be usedor other species. For many years, wagons and other types of carts were the main means of movement for human beings. They not only allowed the transfer of people, but also merchandise and other types of cargo.
[ hide ]
- 1 History
- 2 Types of carts in Rome
- 3 Curiosities
- 4 La Carreta in America
- 5 Features
- 6 Gallery
- 7 See Also
- 8 Sources
At first, heavy objects had to be dragged on sleds , propelling them by brute force. Even when animals stronger than man (oxen, for example) were used, the gait was slow.
The advance could be facilitated by placing under the sleds rough rollers consisting of wooden logs . These rolled rather than crawled, and greatly limited friction. This meant less work, but could actually take longer as the rollers had to be removed from the back and placed back on the front. What was needed, then, was an axle and wheels. We do not know under what circumstances it occurred to someone to fix rollers at the rear and at the front of the sled, in such a way that they rotated inside the strips on which they were held, and remained fixed to the sled at all times. Solid wooden wheels were then attached to the end of each roller, lifting the sled off the ground, and these wheels could rotate freely.
A car moves faster and with much less effort than a sled, even if it is arranged on rollers, which meant a revolution in land transport. Above all, it facilitated trade. Chariots appeared in Sumeria around 3500 BCE. The first carts were heavy and massive: the wheels, which had no spokes, were round planks of wood, protected with leather.
The period between 2000 and 1000 BC sees the beginning of the diffusion of the car throughout the then inhabited world; It could already be found anywhere between the Indus Valley and Egypt , brought by the Nyskos in the 17th century BCE.
In contact with civilizations so diverse and, at the same time, parallel, the car could not stop evolving as time passed; Indeed, it is precisely in this period when it acquires its fundamental lines. With a few important variations, it becomes a relatively comfortable means of transport for people, making it lighter and raising the front edges.
Very soon the extraordinary advantages derived from the adoption of the chariot as a war instrument began to be understood; the flanks and wheel hubs were armed with sharp knives, and thus the chariot was transformed into one of the most fearsome war machines of pre-Roman antiquity.
Types of carts in Rome
The one with the highest load capacity was the angaria, an authentic and true four-wheeled train with high sides, which could carry approximately 500 kg of military equipment. They followed, in decreasing order in terms of capacity, the carpentum or vehiculum (330 Kg.), Usable for transporting passengers over long distances, the carriage (200 Kg.), With four spoke wheels and wide frame, the sidewalk (100 Kg.), For two passengers, and the very light birota (65 Kg.) With two wheels.
Generally, four-wheeled carts were reserved for the transport of large quantities of goods; for example, food, almost always destined for the city. Large companies that were exclusively dedicated to transportation had their headquarters in Rome, also possessing some Branches in the most important localities of the vast empire. They made regular trips, set according to a fairly precise schedule.
La Carreta in America
Until the beginning of the 19th century , the communications of the towns of the interior with Buenos Aires and of those towns with each other reflected the relationship of forces and balances existing in their respective economies. Since the end of that century, the extension of the railway network breaks the old east-north-south and east-west of regional exchanges.
In doing so, it consolidates Buenos Aires as the center of a communication system towards which they converge and from which roads diverge. In this way, the communication scheme that prevails will be that of a funnel, typical of primary economies. The “grid” system of more developed countries endowed them with greater internal cohesion. Decades later, and with special intensity starting in the 1930s , the paving of national trunk routes began to mitigate the effects of that concentration.
Finally, both commercial and state airlines will circulate. But, to reach that domain of space, it was necessary to travel a long journey that, begun during the conquest, will end with the incorporation of the railroad . The territorial extension of Argentina , its scarcity of population, the risks of long journeys and the precariousness of the means of transport, remained with few variations until the end of the 19th century .
One of the most important means of transport that allowed the process of mastering a part of the space to begin was, without a doubt, the cart. Within the blood traction system, the cart occupies a preponderant place. On it, commercial relations were woven and knotted in much of the current Argentine territory. With the irruption of the railroad, its importance was reduced but it was not annulled since for decades, the articulation between the train and the cart worked.
Until the first half of the 20th century , in various Argentine provinces, and in Brazil , Paraguay and Uruguay , it continued to provide its services. The cart was not only a means of transporting passengers or cargo: it was also the first mobile home and the first spontaneous mobile design capable of gathering multiple uses.
The cart is mounted on two large wheels without rims, which can measure up to three meters in diameter. They used to be made of lapacho with iron staples wrapped in leather strips to reinforce them. The axis was often orange ”.
According to the areas, the walls were made of different types of wood, the quinchada of reed or reed with interns of tacuara cane. There could be thatched or awned carts, according to the type of roof they had.
The rudder, in a characteristic way, consisted of a rod of considerable length that, starting from the base of the body, had a very accentuated curve at the opposite end and ended in the yoke, whose stability was obtained by means of a strap fixed to the parapet of the car. The Greek battle tanks were covered on the outside with metallic decorations that gave them a singular beauty.