Strawberry garden

The garden strawberry , strawberry or hybrid strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa and its related cultivars) is the most common variety of Fragaria cultivated worldwide. Like all strawberries, it is from the Rosaceae family ; its fruit is more technically known as infrutescence, in which the fleshy part is not derived from the plant’s ovary (achenes), but rather from the hypanthium that supports the ovaries.

Summary

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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Basonym
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 2 Origin and distribution
  • 3 Features
  • 4 edaphoclimatic requirements
    • 1 Climatic conditions
    • 2 Soil requirements
  • 5 Propagation
    • 1 Plantation management
    • 2 Sowing
    • 3 Irrigation
    • 4 Fertilization
    • 5 Weed control
    • 6 Pruning
    • 7 Harvest
  • 6 Pests and diseases
  • 7 Nutrition
  • 8 References
  • 9 Sources

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Fragaria × ananassa (Weston) Duchesne

Illustration

[1] [2] [3]

Authors

  • Duchesne, Antoine Nicolas
  • Published in: Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 2 (2): 538. 1788. [4]

In other authors

  • Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre de Monnet de [5]

Basonym

  • Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa Weston [6]

Synonymy

  • Fragaria × grandiflora Ehrh.

Fragaria chiloensis + Fragaria virginiana = Fragaria × ananassa

  • Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa weston
  • Fragaria vesca var. sativa L. [7] [8]

Common name

Strawberry, garden strawberry, strawberry or hybrid strawberry.

Origin and distribution

Originally from Europe in the early 18th century , it represents the accidental crossing of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America , notable for its fine flavor, and Fragaria chiloensis from Chile and known for its large size.

The cultivation of Fragaria × ananassa has replaced commercial strawberry Wild production , which was the first strawberry species cultivated in the 17th century .

Strawberry was introduced to Cuba for the first time, in the mid-1960s through the Banao area , Sancti Spíritus province, and later spread to Havana areas whose productions were mainly for the dairy industry.

The main cultivars adaptable to the Cuban climate are: ‘Misionaria’ or Creole strawberry, ‘Chandler’, ‘Oso Gran-de´,’ Parker ‘,’ Robusta ‘,’ Tiago ‘,’ So-lana ‘,’ Aiko ‘and’ Ash tree’.

features

Fragaria × ananassa

The plant is small, not more than 50 cm high, with numerous trilobed leaves and long petioles that originate from a very short crown or rhizome, which is at ground level and constitutes the base of growth of the plant. In it there are three types of buds; in one case some originate several stems that grow next to the first one; others, the stolons that when contacting the ground emit roots and form new plants and the third type of buds that form the flower clusters with hermaphrodite flowers and are grouped into clusters.

It is important to note that what is known as the strawberry fruit is actually a false fruit as a result of the thickening of the flower receptacle. On this false fruit are a large number of seeds, which are the true fruits and are called achenes. The roots are fibrous and shallow. The strawberry plant is perennial, because by its growth system, it is constantly forming new stems, allowing it to stay alive indefinitely.

Edaphoclimatic requirements

Weather conditions

Extensive strawberry cultivation

The strawberry plant is thermo and photoperiodic, that is, its growth depends on the light and temperature conditions. High temperatures and long days (more than twelve hours of light) cause excessive vegetative growth; low temperatures and short days induce flowering. In conditions where every day they have less than 12 hours of light, the determining factor to produce the fruit is the temperature, the optimum being an average of 14 ºC, but it adapts well between 10 and 20 ºC.

The cultivars that are currently cultivated in Cuba require average temperatures of 20 to 25 ºC. This crop develops properly at an altitude from sea level to 4,000 meters above sea level.

Soil requirements

The soils for this crop do not have to be very deep; They must be light, loose, preferably sandy and with very good drainage both internally and superficially, with a high content of organic matter (2 to 3%). The pH must be between 5.5 and 6.5 and the soil must have good fertility. Saline, clayey and limestone soils, which can easily cause acute chlorosis to plants, should be avoided.

The strawberry is very demanding in terms of soil conditions and reacts quickly to any biotic or abiotic stress with a significant decrease in commercial performance. Before planting the crop, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the soil.

Propagation

Fruits

Although the strawberry plant is perennial, as a crop it is considered annual, that is, it is renewed every year. Its growth and formation system of new crowns and stolons, allows a fast and safe vegetative propagation.

In Cuba , the way to spread the strawberry is through the stolons, which are obtained both in nurseries and in commercial plantations after the end of their production cycle. When nurseries are used for their propagation, the stolons will be planted in the months of April-March preferably.

For obtaining stolons in commercial plantations, after the cessation of fruit production, cultural care is essential, including cleaning, irrigation, application of plant protection products if needed, and fertilization. These will be ready for transplantation (sowing) during the months of October and November, (Citrus and Fruit Research Institute, 1998 ).

Plantation management

Fruit interior

It is important to note that although it adapts to different temperatures, strawberry cultivation requires special care and a program that regulates the planting period between the end of October and the beginning of December, in addition to protection during the rainy season or when there is a lot of solar irradiation.

The soil preparation will be carried out with sufficient time (between 90-100 days), so that the ground is level and fluffy at a depth of 25 – 30 cm and in optimal conditions for the construction of the stonemasons.

After the preparation of the soil, the formation of the high beds or ridges of 40 to 50 cm in height is carried out. This is done when the ground is wet at field capacity.

Sowing

Parts of the fruit

The postures (stolons) previously disinfected are placed in three bobbins in the holes and watering is carried out to ensure their catching. Single, double, triple and quadruple rows can be planted on a flower bed with a separation of 30 to 20 cm between rows and 20 to 30 cm between plants arranged with three bolillos, the separation between flower bed of 90 to 70 cm and the height of the same from 25 to 30 cm. Paths of no less than 50 cm should be left to facilitate harvesting and the application of pesticides.

The plant should be planted at a depth such that the root collar is at ground level, so that no exposed roots or buried crown are left. The transplant must be carried out during the months of October to December, the optimal time being the first fortnight of November.

Plantation density is one of the factors determining yield, and it is related to technology and available workforce. Densities range from 37,000 plants to 120,000 plants per hectare.

Irrigation

Irrigation is a fundamental actor in strawberry production In the main production areas, there are two very well-known seasons: the dry season, from December to April, and the rainy season from May to November. The main harvest begins in November or December and the plant remains in production throughout the dry season; therefore, to take advantage of it, it is essential to have an adequate irrigation system.

In the strawberry, as a principle, work with low standards and short intervals, after transplanting, a daily irrigation will be given in the first 15 days with a standard of approximately 150 m 3 / ha. In the second month it will be watered every two days with the same rule, from the third month there will be a watering every 3 days with the same rule until the end of the cycle. In all cases, excess humidity must be avoided and the water must have a low percentage of sodium chloride. Irrigation techniques can be dripping, micro sprinkling, watering, and sprinkling.

Fertilization

Flower

It is a practical method to determine the nutrient needs of any crop and is based on the balance between the demand for nutrients and the existence of these in the soil.

Taking into account the extraction made by the harvest, the nutrient utilization coefficient, the potential yields of the crop and the knowledge of the producer, the nutrient needs can be calculated for each plantation individually.

The strawberry responds satisfactorily in soils with high contents of organic matter and it has been demonstrated in our conditions that contributions of 40 to 50 t / ha of organic matter are sufficient to achieve satisfactory yields of up to 10-15 t / ha.

Since strawberry cultivation is very intensive and it is also a high production plant, it is important to maintain a fertilization program to replenish the extraction of nutrients and maintain soil fertility. In new soils, which have been with grasses, it is not necessary to fertilize the first year. Applications of phosphorus, potassium and minor elements have not given results. The addition of nitrogen in these conditions causes a great vegetative development that delays the harvest. In soils with several planting cycles and especially with steep slopes, there is a response to the application of nitrogen in moderate amounts. Also in complete formulas like 10-30-10.

Nitrogen can be divided into two or three applications and both phosphorus and potassium are applied once before planting.

Stimulators can be used to improve production such as Ergostim at a rate of 0.03-0.08%, Folamine at a rate of 0.1-0.2% or Bayfolan at a rate of 0.2-0.3%.

Weed control

Leaves

This crop is very demanding of weed control, it must be totally clean throughout the cycle and this cleaning begins with good soil preparation.

Chemical control can be applied with Finale® directed to the soil with a protective screen, avoiding touching the crop at doses of 3-10 L / ha.

Manually the most used work in cleaning is weeding inside the flowerbed and damage to plants should be avoided. As many passes will be given as necessary and hoes or work animals will be used to maintain the cleanliness of the corridors.

Pruning

Due to the type of growth of the strawberry plant, the constant production of stems causes the plant to accumulate a large amount of dead leaves and branches, in contact with the ground mainly, as a consequence of the heat produced by the covering of black polyethylene. This leaf litter retains moisture that facilitates the fungal attack on the fruit and also makes it difficult to apply pesticides, making it necessary to remove it by cleaning pruning.

Pruning should be done after heavy production cycles; old clusters, dry and damaged leaves and fruit remains are removed. Care must be taken not to mistreat the plant and it should not be pruned before the first production. By increasing the penetration of light into the leaves, as well as ventilation, the renewal of the plant is accelerated, facilitates the application of pesticides and prevents the attack of fungi on the fruit.

Harvest

Fruits of different cultivars of the Fragaria × ananassa

From the 2 months after the plantation is established, the collection of the first fruits begins; When the production stabilizes, no less than 3 harvests will be carried out per week, manually and without damaging the fruits, which will have attached a cm of peduncle.

The highest production peaks are achieved at the end of December, beginning of January, with production being maintained until the beginning of May. The harvested fruits cannot remain exposed to the sun and the transfer to the place of destination or to a refrigerated chamber must be carried out as quickly as possible.

Proper postharvest handling of strawberries is essential. Cooling the strawberries will remove the field heat and increase the shelf life. Harvesting early in the day while temperatures are cool and then chilling the fruit before shipping will extend the shelf life appreciably.

Forced air cooling is the most common method used in strawberries. The boxes are stacked parallel to each other in a cold room with an open space between the boxes. A tarp is then placed on and in the rear areas of the stacked boxes, with a fan located between the piles. The fan draws air into the stacked box spaces, removing heat from the field to the strawberries.

It is essential that the fruit be refreshed as soon as possible. If the delay between harvest and refrigeration exceeds one hour, the greater the deterioration losses will be (Kader, 1992 ). Strawberry water loss can be a problem, so keeping humidity high at the cooling site is critical. Avoid wetting the fruit, which can cause problems with rotting.

Plagues and diseases

Gray mold is caused by Botrytis cineria fungus

Main insects, mites and fungi that affect strawberry cultivation. Soil fungi such as Phytophthora , Pythium , Rhizoctonia spp., And Verticillium dahlia are the most important fungal pathogens that affect strawberries worldwide and cause root and neck rot of the plant.

The gray mold is caused by the fungus Botrytis cineria , which is one of the fruit rots diseases most common and serious. The fungus grows best in cool, wet weather, and can be devastating if rainy weather coincides with harvest when the fruit is ripe and highly susceptible. If the harvesters touch the infected strawberries, they can infect healthy strawberries, causing them to rot within two days after harvest. Powdery blight or mildew infects foliage, flowers, and fruit.

Leaf spot diseases identified by the presence of leaf and stem stains can be caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae , Ramularia tulasnei , or Phomopis obscurans fungi , or by the bacterium Xanthomomas fragariae . These pathogens are scattered by water sprinkled with dead leaves and other debris from the plant. Another of these pathogens is the fungus Colletotrichum spp. that causes anthracnose in this crop.

In the case of the problems caused by insects and pest mites, these vary with the place of production. The most common include strawberry white grubs , the weevil strawberry , rootworm , lygus , the aphids and mites or mites belonging to the family Tetranychidae . These mites feed on the juices from strawberry leaves. Large populations can reduce the photosynthetic capacity of plants, resulting in weakened plants and reduced fruit yields.

The table shows some insecticide, acaricide, fungicide and other products that show good pest control, mainly in strawberry cultivation, and its use in this cultivation is recommended.

Insecticide, acaricide, fungicide and other products that show
good pest control, mainly in strawberry cultivation
Product Dose Application for control and other uses
Previcur N® 2-3 L / ha Disinfection against fungi of the genus Phytium and Phytophthora spp. (fungi of the ground and that cause root and neck rot).
Aliette WG® 0.25-0.35% Disinfection against fungi of the genus Phytium and Phytophthora spp. (fungi of the ground and that cause root and neck rot). It is also used to control downy mildew, Colletotrichum spp.
Trotis 25 SC® 5-8 L / ha Mushrooms of the genus Rhizoctonia
Senator 48® 0.15-0.2% Caterpillars ( Spodoptera spp .; Spodoptera exigua ; Spodoptera litoralis ; Heliothis armígera and others) (from transplant to beginning of flowering)
Decis protech® (max 1.16 L / ha) Caterpillars ( Spodoptera spp .; Spodoptera exigua ; Spodoptera litoralis ; Heliothis armígera and others) (throughout the crop cycle). Also for the control of aphids ( aphids ).
FlorBac ® 0.5-1 kg / ha Caterpillars ( Spodoptera spp .; Spodoptera exigua ; Spodoptera litoralis ; Heliothis armígera and others)
Bayfidan ® 312 SC 0.02-0.04% Oidium spp. Establish a preventive treatment program, alternating products with different modes of action
Caddy ® 10 peep 0.01-0.02% Oidium spp.
Elosal ® GD 0.25-0.75% Oidium spp.
Flint ® 25 g / hL Oidium spp.
Heliosufre ® 0.2-0.6% Oidium spp.
Teldor ® 1.5 kg / ha Botrytis
Cesar ® 0.05-0.075% Red spider (mites in the family Tetranychidae )
Oberon ® 0.06% Red spider (mites in the family Tetranychidae )
Mesurol ® 4 bait 3-4 kg / ha Against snails and slugs. Apply to the soil to protect the crop from damage.
Copper oxychloride 0.25% yoy Colletotrichum spp. ( Anthracnose )

Nutrition

One cup (144 g) of strawberries constitutes approximately 45 calories (188 kJ) and is an excellent source of vitamin C and flavonoids .

Nutrients Units A cup
~ 144 g
Approximate
Water g 132
Energy kcal 43
Energy kJ 181
Protein g 0.88
Total lipids (fat) g 0.53
Carbohydrates , by difference g 10.1
Total dietary fiber g 3.3
Ash g 0.62
Minerals
Calcium , Ca mg twenty
Iron , Faith mg 0.55
Magnesium , Mg mg 14
Phosphorus , P mg 27
Potassium , K mg 240
Sodium , Na mg 1.44
Zinc , Zn mg 0.19
Copper , Cu mg 0.07
Manganese , Mn mg 0.42
Selenium , Se µg 1.01
Vitamins
Vitamin C , ac. ascorbic mg 82
Thiamine mg 0.03
Riboflavin mg 0.10
Niacin mg 0.33
Pantothenic acid mg 0.49
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.09
Folate µg 25
B12 vitamin µg 0
Vitamin A , IU IU 39
Vitamin A , RE µg RE 4.3
Vitamin E mg ATE 0.2
Nutrient Units A cup
~ 144 g
 
Lipids  
Ac saturated fatty g 0.03  
16: 0 g 0.02  
18: 0 g 0.006  
Ac monounsaturated fatty g 0.075  
16: 1 g 0.001  
18: 1 g 0.073  
Ac polyunsaturated fatty g 0.27  
18: 2 g 0.16  
18: 3 g 0.11  
Cholesterol mg 0  
Phytosterols mg 17  
Amino acids  
Tryptophan g 0.01  
Threonine g 0.027  
Isoleucine g 0.02  
Leucine g 0.045  
Lysine g 0.036  
Methionine g 0.001  
Cystine g 0.007  
Phenylalanine g 0.026  
Tyrosine g 0.03  
Valine g 0.026  
Arginine g 0.037  
Histidine g 0.017  
To the girl g 0.045  
Aspartic acid g 0.2  
Glutamic acid g 0.13  
Glycine g 0.035  
Proline g 0.027  
Serine g 0.033  

 

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