The term referring has different meanings. One of them is to refer to something, , when an object or individual is a reference to something or is related to something.In general, the term referring is used to indicate something or someone that is the exponent of an event or activity , and serves as a model, symbol,or so prominent member.
It can also be applied to those who report on a situation , having knowledge of it: ”
He spoke as a reference of the dramatic events that occurred after the earthquake ”
You have explained the situation of the patient, but not You are a valid reference because you are not even a doctor.
In the process of communication , a reference is the real object which is expressed through a channel,if the message expresses: “This book is old”.In the field of semiotics, for its part, the referent is defined as one of the elements that integrates the sign , based on the specific and real object, to which reference is made. For example, the referent of the symbol “tree” is a physical element composed of branches , leaves, trunk, etc.
In Saussurian linguistics, the linguistic sign unites a thing and a name.It is necessary to distinguish between the referential function, or denotation and the meaning or relation between signifier and signified within the sign itself. The meaning links a sound or graphic sequence “tree” to a meaning: tree; the reference links the sign “tree” in its entirety to existing trees.