Red anon

Red anon . Species of tropical fruit tree with flower belonging to the family of the anonáceas . It has an edible fruit very similar to custard apple .

Summary

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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Accepted names
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 2 Distribution
  • 3 Features
    • 1 Leaves
    • 2 Flowers
    • 3 Fruit
    • 4 Pollination
  • 4 Climate and Soil
  • 5 Harvest
  • 6 Pests and diseases
  • 7 Uses
    • 1 As food
    • 2 Wood
  • 8 Medicinal use
  • 9 Properties
  • 10 References
  • 11 Source

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Annona reticulata L.

Illustration

[1] [2] [3]

Authors

  • Linnaeus, Carl von
  • Published in: Species Plantarum 1: 537. 1753. (1 May 1753 ) [4]

Accepted names

  • Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. [5]

Synonymy

  • Annona excelsa Kunth
  • Annona humboldtiana Kunth
  • Annona humboldtii Dun.
  • Annona laevis Kunth
  • Annona longifolia Sessé & Moc.
  • Primal Annona Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Annona reticulata var. Primal (Standl. & Steyerm.) Lundell
  • Annona riparia Kunth [6]
  • Annona lutescens Saff. [7]
  • Annona micrantha Bertero ex Spreng. [8]

Common name

  • Red custard apple, red custard apple, custard apple heart, ox heart, maman, cachimán, candón, mamón, biriba, biribá, rolinia, corosol.

Distribution

It is a fruit native to Central America and part of North America .

features

This fast growing tree reaches 4-15 m high.

Leaves

Leaves

It has hairy branches and alternate, deciduous, oblong-elliptic or ovate-oblong leaves, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base, 10-25 cm long, thin but somewhat leathery and hairy at the bottom.

flowers

Flower

The flowers, born 1 to 3 or sometimes more, in the axils of the leaves, are hermaphrodite, 2-3.5 cm wide, triangular, with 3 hairy sepals, 3 large and fleshy outer petals with a horizontal or upward tip. , and 3 rudimentary internal petals.

Fruit

Green fruit

Ripe fruit

The fruit is conical, heart-shaped, or oblate, 15 cm in diameter; the bark is colored green and in some cases reddish, it is made up of more or less conical hexagonal segments, each ending with a protrusion like a wart; about 3 mm thick, choreal, hard and indehiscent.

The pulp is white, mucilaginous, translucent, juicy, with a sweet or sour taste. It has a thin, opaque white nucleus and numerous dark brown, elliptical or obovate seeds, 1.6-2 cm long.

Pollination

Several species of beetles in the Chrysomelidae family pollinate flowers, but only 32% of the flowers bear fruit. Fruiting begins 55 days after the appearance of flowering.

Climate and soil

This plant is limited to the warm lowlands, from 20º north to 30º south latitude in tropical America.

In Puerto Rico , it occurs at altitudes between 500 and 2,000 feet (150-600 m). It has succumbed when the temperature drops to 26.5ºF (-3.10ºC) in South Florida. In Brazil, the tree grows naturally in low-lying areas throughout the Amazon with periodic flooding.

In the Philippines , it is said to flower when the rain is equally distributed throughout the year. Calcareous soils do not appear to be inadequate in Florida or Puerto Rico, provided they are wet.

Harvest

In the Amazon, the tree can flower and bear fruit throughout the year, but the fruits are more abundant from January to June. The fruits ripen in February and March in Rio de Janeiro. In Florida, the fruits have matured in November and December.

In South America , the fruit is picked when it is still green and hard for transport intact to urban markets, where it gradually turns yellow and soft. When the fruit is ripe, manipulation causes wart-like bumps on the rind to turn brown or almost black, making them unattractive.

Plagues and diseases

  • The most important pest that affects this olanta are the Cerconota anonellalarvae of the order Lepidoptera that attack the fruits in the ripening process.
  • The stem borer, Cratosomus bombina, penetrates the bark and trunk. A caterpillar, Sabine sp., Feeds on the leaves.
  • A whitefly, Aleurodicus cocois , attacks the foliage of young and adult plants.
  • Pseudococcus brevipesand Aspidiotus destructor are found on the leaves and sometimes on the fruits.
  • Black spots on the leaves are caused by the Cercospora anonaefungus . Glomerella cingulata causes fruit rot in Florida.

Applications

This plant has different uses according to its characteristics.

I eat food

The fruit is consumed fresh and fermented to make wine in Brazil.

Wood

Since the wood of the tree is yellow, hard, strong and heavy, it is used for the ribs of canoes, ship masts, plates and boxes.

Medicinal use

The fruit is considered as analeptic and antiscorbutic. Seed powder is a remedy for enterocolitis.

Properties

The root is astringent and tonic. The seeds are astringent, they have been used in cases of diarrhea and dysentery. The seed nucleus is highly poisonous and the roots also contain a deadly poison. The fruit, seeds and rind are used.

 

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