Ramadan . It is a special month for the Muslim religion  , since it is celebrated what is known worldwide as the month of fasting, called Ramadan. It is considered the ninth month of the Muslim Calendar , and in which Muslims fast daily from dawn until sunset, following the rules that strengthen their faith.
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- 1 Start
- 2 History
- 3 Pillars of fasting
- 4 Activities in Ramadan
- 5 Fasting
- 1 Duties that are preserved during fasting
- 2 Facts that invalidate the fast
- 3 Other fasts
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
The start date  . and the end of Ramadan is not the same for all Muslims . For some it depends on the vision of the moon, so in some countries Ramadan begins earlier than in others, and within the same country, depending on the weather, the days of both the beginning and end of these festivals may be different.
Historically, on Ramadan 27, according to tradition, 1429 years ago the revelation of the Koran to Muhammad began . In memory of this, the so-called Night of Destiny is celebrated in Islam . But other revelations also occurred within the month of Ramadan, such as on the 2nd day, when the Torah was revealed to Moses ; on the 12th, the biblical teachings to Jesus , and on the 15th the Psalms to David . Other historical events related to Islam occurred within the month of Ramadan, such as the death of Khadijah, the wife of the prophet Muhammadon day 10; Husayn ibn Ali, son of Ali ibn Abi Talib the first Muslim, was born on Ramadan 15. In turn, the latter died on the 21st day of Ramadan. During those days, Muslims, both men and women, are in constant fasting and prayer, in order to achieve a greater approach to God .
Pillars of fasting
The pillars of fasting in Islam, either in the month of Ramadan, or in other months, are as follows:
- Abstinence from anything that breaks the fast (drink, food or carnal relationships) from dawn to sunset .
- Keep the intention in mind. It must be kept in mind and heart , without having to say anything with your tongue [to pronounce something concrete (that is to say the intention)], it must be before the fayr (beginning of the time of the first prayer of the day) , and can be said daily, or for the whole month from its beginning.
Activities in Ramadan
Muslims in the mosque showing devotion to God.
In that month he dedicates himself to contemplation and devotion. Muslims focus on their faith and spend less time on daily concerns. During the day they go to the mosqueand they stay there for several hours praying and studying the Koran. At sunset the fast ends with prayers and a meal called iftar. After the iftar it is customary to go visit family and friends. Some Muslims spend much of the night reciting a special Ramadan prayer called the Night Prayer (Taraweeh). According to the Qur’an, the Muslim can drink and eat at night, “until a white thread can be distinguished from a black thread in daylight: then fasting begins again.” All the spiritual benefit that fasting brings can be destroyed by five offenses: lying, slandering, denouncing someone behind his back, swearing falsely, feeling envy or ambition.
Fasting  . It is the duty of the adult Muslim, healthy of judgment, healthy, resident, be it man or woman. The mentally ill, the minor, the woman during menstruation or the puerperium, as well as the pregnant woman, the woman who is breastfeeding, and the weak elderly do not fast.
Duties that are preserved during fasting
- As-suhur: suhur consists of taking some food in the early morning, always before the Fayr, no matter how little the amount of food or drink, even if it was a little water , a time that extends from midnight to the entrance of the moment of prayer, before the first light of dawn, with the intention of fasting present in the mind, since suhur is blessing and prosperity as the Prophet says.
- Break the fast immediately after sunset and at the beginning of the magrib prayer time.
- Praying and pleading at the time of breaking the fast
- Refrain from everything that contradicts fasting morally: Fasting is a great school of discipline and doctrine, both spiritual and moral, since it is not limited to abstinence from eating or drinking alone, but from everything that is a bad word, bad act or bad thought. The fasting person should be forgiving in case he is insulted or attacked by someone, and must avoid all obscenities.
- The use of siuák during fasting: it is a piece of branch of a special tree that is found in the Arabian peninsula and that is of many benefits, both for the teeth and for the gums and the mouth, and is used as a toothbrush. teeth.
- Be generous: The Muslim must always be generous, but he is more so in the month of Ramadan.
- Increase the reading of the Holy Quran: During the month of Ramadan, when the Holy Quran was revealed, it should be recited more frequently than in the other months.
- Increase practices: Especially in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.
Facts that invalidate the fast
- Eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse, during abstinence, the fast of that day is canceled and one must do what is known in Islam as kaffárah.
- The masturbation .
- Intentional vomiting .
- Perform any act that invalidates the fast, being aware of its consequences.
Kaffárah consists of fasting for two months. In the event that a married couple has sexual relations voluntarily, the two have to do kaffárah. If you commit the same act on another day, you will have to do another kafrárah and if you do it twice on the same day, you will only do one kaffárah, as each day is considered independently of the others.
Fasting can be classified into two types:
- The obligatory fast (Fard)
- The voluntary fast (Nafl)
- The obligatory fast (Fard) is divided in turn into:
- a) The fast of the month of “Ramadan”.
- b) The fast of the “Kaffárah”.
- c) Fasting of the “Nadr” or of the promises that one makes oneself before God