Pterygopalatine fossa . It is located between the maxilla in front and the pterygoid portion of the sphenoid behind. Medially it is limited by the perpendicular process of the palatine. It communicates with the infratemporal fossa laterally through the maxillary fissure, with the orbit through the inferior orbital cleft, with the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine orifice and the posterior superior region with the middle cranial fossa through the greater round hole. This fossa contains the terminal portion of the maxillary artery , the trigeminal maxillary division, and the pterygopalatine parasympathetic ganglion.
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- 1 Limits of the pterygogopalatine fossa
- 2 Communications
- 3 Contents of the pit
- 4 6 terminal branches of the maxillary artery
- 5 Pterygopalatine ganglion
- 6 Pterygoid or Vidian Nerve
- 7 Source
Pteriogopalatine fossa boundaries
- Posterior: Hole and pterygoid duct and the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid
- Anterior: Posterior aspect of the maxillary bone.
- Medial: Perpendicular lamina of the palatine bone.
- Side: Open.
- Ceiling: A major sphenoid bone, is not complete.
- Floor: Pyramidal process of the Palatine bone.
- Laterally: Infratemporal fossa due to the pterygomaxillary fissure.
- Medially: Nostrilsthrough the sphenopalatine hole.
- Anterosuperior: It communicates with the orbit through the spheno-maxillary fissure.
- Posterosuperior: It communicates with the middle cranial fossa through the pterygoid canal and the greater round hole.
- Maxillary Nerve (V2) and its branches.
- Communicating branch for the pterygopalatine ganglion.
- Infraorbital nerve.
- Zygomatic Nerve with its divisions.
- Communicating branch for the lacrimal nerve.
- Facial zygomatic nerve.
- Temporal zygomatic nerve.
- Posterior superior alveolar nerve.
- Middle superior alveolar nerve.
6 terminal branches of the maxillary artery
- Infraorbital artery.
- Major or Descending Palatine Artery.
- Descending pharyngeal artery.
- Pterygoid duct artery.
- Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery.
- Sphenopalatine artery.
- It is located in front of the pterygoid duct.
- It is below the Maxillary Nerve, practically hanging from it.
- To him come 3 types of innervations:
- Sympathetic: Coming from the internal Carotid plexus, and reaches it through the Deep Petrosal Nerve.
- Parasympathetic: Coming from the Facial Nerve, it arrives through the Greater Petrosal Nerve.
- General Sensitive: coming from the Maxillary Nerve and reaches it through the communicating branch of the Maxillary Nerve with the Pterygopalatine Ganglion.
Pterygoid or Vidian Nerve
Pterygoid or Vidian nerve reaches the pterygopalatine ganglion through the Vidian duct, formed by 2 nerves:
- Greater Petrosal Nerve.
- Deep Petrous Nerve.
- It carries sympathetic and also parasympathetic information.