he Phoenician civilization is an ancient region of the Middle East, comprising the areas of what is now known as Syria, Israel, Lebanon and Palestine.
The Phoenicians were great navigators and they were of the civilizations that left more legacies of the alphabet, as they were so good navigators this allowed the alphabet to expand, they also managed to establish very important trade agreements.
Political Organization of the Phoenician Civilization
- Cities state:in each city of the Phoenician culture there was a palace for royalty, from that place the State deals were carried out.
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- Monarchy:the government was based on the monarchy as in the west, they were dedicated to the construction of statues and temples. The monarchy was hereditary, the monarchs, the king and the queen, developed priestly duties.
- Oligarchy:as the business activities expanded, the oligarchy began to form.
Social Organization of the Phoenicians
In the social organization was royalty, rich merchants were also part, then owners or artisan merchants who were part of the middle class and in the last class were those who had no property and work in the countryside, in this civilization there were also slaves and servants.
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Culture of the Phoenicians
They were polytheists, they worshiped gods that were in nature, they worshiped the stars and natural manifestations; The main divinities are Astarte, Baal, Dagon, Resef and Melqart.
The Phoenicians develop the alphabet according to their commercial activities, based on Egyptian ideograms.
They created a phonetic alphabet of 22 letters, the Greeks and Romans adapted this alphabet.
The ideogram used was a set of symbols that represented objects and animals; It was a simple system that allowed them to spread their culture and knowledge.
Periods of the Phoenician Civilization
Sidon Period: Sidon was a city that was facing the sea, so its economy is supposed to be based on maritime commerce; becoming the most important fishing port of Phenicia.
In the twelfth century BC the Philistines destroyed the city, so its dominance lasted about 400 years.
Shooting Period: this place became the commercial exchange zone between the West and the East; since the citizens of the city of Tire achieved hegemony over the Mediterranean Sea by founding new colonies.
Period of Carthage: this city was towards North Africa, it became one of the most important cities in the Mediterranean; thanks to an impressive maritime expansion.
The end of this city came about 146 BC at the hands of the Romans.