Inca civilization

The Inca civilization is also known as the Quechua civilization or Inca civilization, the end of its empire came between the years 1940 and 1959 with the conquest of the Spaniards.

Social organization

It was divided by 2 social classes that in turn had more divisions:

Nobility: it was divided into royalty, blood nobility, privilege nobility and nobility of defeated nationalities.

Town: it was the social class with the most divisions, it was made up of artisans, merchants, fishermen, hatunrunas, mitmas, mamaconas, yanas, pampayrunas and pines.


The work was obligatory for all, both for men and women, although they were assigned different tasks according to the capacity of each one.

Agriculture was fundamental in the Inca economy, it is believed that they grew more than 80 species of food such as potatoes, corn, quinoa, tomatoes, peanuts, chili, cassava, beans, cotton, chicha, tobacco, coca, among others.

Although livestock was scarce it did have a presence, this is due to the few animal species that lived there, in fact, the best known animals there were alpaca and llama, which were used for their wool and meat.


It was very important in the development of this civilization, they watched the sun and managed to determine the solstices and the equinoxes. They divided the year into 12 moons and each 30 days.

Each month I had a specific religious ceremony or holiday, hence the popular Inti Raymi comes in June.


This civilization worshiped the sun, the moon and natural phenomena. The sun was called Inti, the moon was Mama Killa and she was the protector of women and wife of the sun.

Other gods were Illapa, god of lightning, Apus, gods of the mountains, Coyllur, goddess of the stars, Pachamama, mother earth, Mama Cocha, mother of the lakes, among others.

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Artistic Expression of the Inca Civilization


It was characterized by 3 major aspects: symmetry, simplicity and solidity, it is also distinguished by the sophisticated and refined use of the stone and its territorial planning.

The trapezoidal window is another very important characteristic of Inca architecture and even today, it is surprising to use the stone for its structures, giant stones and with many angles.

The places that best represent this artistic expression are the citadel of Machu Picchu, Cusco, Ollantaytambo, Sacsayhuamán, Coricancha and Písac.

Macchu Picchu

It is probably the most representative of the Inca civilization; It was discovered by Hiram Bingham in the year 1911 and in the year 1.83 was declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

It is located in the province of Urubamba, within Cusco, at 2,400 meters high Machu Picchu.

It is one of the most important archeological sites in the world, it is also one of the new seven wonders of the modern world.

Other Forms of Artistic Expression

The sculpture also an important expression of this civilization, the majority of works were in stone; but they also used other materials such as wood, gold and silver.

Pottery was also part of Inca art, were two types of ceramics, ceremonial and utilitarian.

Many of these ceramics are found in museums, so do not hesitate to visit them when you pass through Cusco.

Other forms of expression were also mummification, music, dance, goldsmithing, textiles, silverware, painting and literature.

by Abdullah Sam
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