The Hebrew civilization was located in the area of Mesopotamia, it is estimated that it took place around the years 1800 BC, that is, some 2,000 years before the common era.
The most recognized Hebrews in history were Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Saul, David and Solomon. His musical system had influences from the Phoenicians and the Persian kings.
The Holy Scriptures was the focal point regarding the literature of this civilization, there the experiences between the Hebrews and God are narrated. They also seek to leave a teaching to the readers through the Psalms.
The Hebrews dedicated themselves to agriculture and livestock, cultivating olive groves and vines. Camels, horses and oxen helped to graze the herds of goats and sheep.
However, trade was very important in the development of this economy, the Hebrew civilization was between Egypt and Mesopotamia, so the path of merchants had a step forced by civilization. Take this step to export ivory, precious metals, oils, wines and exotic spices.
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The Hebrews were monotheistic, that is, they believed in only one god who demanded exclusivity. They completely rejected the polytheists, idolaters and fetishists, believed that accepting these practices, were disapproved by God and as a result would be destroyed.
The Hebrews believed in a God who represented love, wisdom, justice and power, but not in visual representations, for doing so was a type of idolatry. The name of the God of the Hebrews was YHWH, currently the Spanish translations that were accepted are Yahweh or Jehovah.
There were 3 fundamental elements in religion for the Hebrew civilization that were:
- Laws that became known as the 10 commandments.
2. Judges by way of prophets.
3. Religious celebrations such as Easter, Pentecost and the Feast of Tabernacles.
The Hebrew religion was the origin of 2 major religions of the world today that are Christianity, Islam and Judaism.
Political Organization of the Hebrew Civilization
It was divided into 12 tribes that were:
The names of the tribes are inspired by the sons of Jacob, 10 of them, and the remaining 2 of Joseph’s sons. Although the tribes do not form a state in themselves, each one had a judge who in some situation of risk took the role of leader.
Later, the united kingdom of Israel was formed, Saul, David and Solomon were kings of that kingdom. And it was precisely after Solomon’s death that there was a rivalry in the kingdom and there was a separation of the 10 tribes of Israel and the kingdom of 2 tribes of Judah. This situation produced an economic, religious and political deterioration in the Hebrew civilization.
The main social organization of the Hebrews was the family group, where the father was the figure of highest authority, administered justice when required, led the war and ruled in religious rites.
The Hebrews were nomads, they lived in transportable tents so they were facilitated to travel from one place to another. His work of grazing sheep and goats was not affected by his lifestyle.
The first patriarch that is known is Abraham, who settled in Canaan, there the Hebrews lived in stone houses and from there began to forge the Hebrew civilization.