- United Nations was founded in 1945.
- Its aim was to make the world a better and safer place to live in.
- UN Security council has five permanent members.
- They enjoy a veto power.
- N. is dominated by the Soviet Union and the USA.
- Developing nations have no say in formulation of major policies.
- Some change has been observed recently on account of change in Soviet Union’s policy.
- United role of Security Council during-1raq-kuwait conflict.
- Policy making by UN is now dominated by USA.
- Basic changes necessary in its functioning to make it more effective.
United Nations founded for maintaining peace in the world has failed miserably in its objects. There was war of domination between super powers. Small counting has no say in policy making. Veto power enjoyed by permanent members of Security Council is often misused.* Drastic changes in its functioning are necessary to make it more effective.
To make the world a better and safer place to live and to ensure peace and harmony all round, the United Nations was founded in 1945 at the end of the Second World War, by the victorious powers. But by reserving for them a veto power in the UN Security Council-the main body for maintenance of peace between the warring nations-this institution was made the monopoly of five permanent members. The permanent members are the USA, the Soviet Union, Britain, France and China. The UNO has always been in the limelight but it became the focal point of the world attention recently when the USA and her kllies fought the Gulf war with the sanction of the UN Security Council wherein a series of hasty resolutions were passed to get Iraq out of Kuwait.
After the Second World War both the West and the Soviet Union were engaged in cold war. They pursued their own policies and diplomacies without caring for the views expressed in the UNO and using their veto power to nullify the other’s view-points. The Security Council was, therefore, converted into a debating forum only: It was just functioning as a Western Club, wherein the necessary follow-up action seldom came. This resulted in widespread disillusionment.
Why Future of United Nations Has been Always Bright
The form of the UN somewhat changed with the admission of a large number of small African nations. Their intention was to change the political and economic policies of the world in their favors. In the beginning both the West and the Soviets posed to favor them and exploited this situation for their own purposes. This exploitation was more by the Soviet Union which naturally caused a lot of worry for the USA who were financing about 25 per cent of the total budgetary demands of the UN and its agencies. The latter started denouncing this attitude of the Soviet Union and the Third World countries. The US who were treating the UN as their subordinate body decided to withdraw from the UNESCO and it was the first shot for their offensive. They also started withholding part of their financial contribution to force their viewpoint in the UNO. The USA never intended to see the end of the organization but they wanted to maintain their leadership which was endangered due to the changed complexion of the world organization and exigencies of the cold war. This phase of passivity ended with the dramatic developments in the Gulf.
In recent years, the UN started to play significant roles in supervising the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan and Namibia’s independence although UN Security Council’s action during the Gulf crisis showed a qualitative change. This time both the US and the Soviet Union acted in unison.
There has been a lot of change in the Soviet foreign policy under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev. This led to the unification of Germany and separation of the East European and central countries from the Soviet bloc. The change in Soviet policy is represented by two new words: glasnost (openness) and perestroika (reconstruction). While explaining his foreign policy Mr. Gorbachev gave due importance to the UN and compared the UN Security Council to the world’s policemen. This was the reason why the USA gets the authorization of the Security Council for the Gulf war so easily.
This shift in the views of the two super powers has started a new chapter in the history of the UN. The balance of power has shifted in favor of the Unites States as the Soviet Union is busy in overcoming its own internal political and economic crisis. This aspect gives rise to the question: how this will affect the functioning of the UN?
The present world is quite different from the time when the UN was founded and as can be seen from the recent happenings the world body is apparently being run by the five permanent members of the Security Council. The other countries have no say towards the decisions on war and peace. Thus, there is no balance world power equations and unless its Membership reflects this power equation, it would not be able to function effectively. The developing nations cannot remain dependent and at the mercy of the five nations running the show. The non-aligned movement having lost much of its relevance in the present world the UN, its appears, will go its own way as permanent five will try to run the disunited world in the way they deem fit. Therefore, there is very little for the majority of the actions to cheer up in the newly-found effectiveness of the UN Security Council which will continue to serve the interests of the supreme powers.
To make the world more effective and impartial it should be revitalized. The Secretary-General should be a really innovative and a far-sighted person. The domination by the US should be checked. The veto power which has often been misused should be softened and made exerciser by a group and not by a single nation.