Liver . From the lat. ( Ecur ficatum , liver fed with figs). Asymmetric odd gland , the largest in the body, located in the upper abdomen , below the diaphragm and consisting of the gathering of a considerable number of Lobules or hepatons. It is divided by grooves into lobes: right, left, square, Spiegel and caudate. It has five classes of vessels: hepatic venous arteries.


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  • 1 Features and processes
    • 1 Reception
    • 2 Process
    • 3 Store
    • 4 Distribute
    • 5 Regular
  • 2 types of liver
  • 3 Foundation of the liver segmental anatomy
    • 1 Annex
  • 4 Anatomy and function
    • 1 Anatomy
    • 2 Functions
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Source
  • 7 External link

Features and processes

The Liver is the largest gland in the body and has been estimated to perform more than 200 different functions. Many of these functions are not directly related to the transport of nutrients, but we can synthesize them in the following processes:

  • Reception
  • Process
  • To stock
  • To distribute
  • Regular


Substances absorbed in the intestine and passed into the blood go to the liver.


The liver synthesizes different proteins from the blood such as Alpha-Macroglobulins . Transforms excess nutrients into reserve substances. It deaminates excess amino acids and converts them into carbohydrates or fat. The same happens with other organic nutrients.

To stock

Substances that, because they were in excess, were processed for storage, such as glucose in glycogen, are stored in the liver.

To distribute

The liver sends the tissues, according to their needs, the quantity and variety of nutrients required.


Nutrients, such as glucose, are kept constant in the blood by the liver regardless of supply and utilization rates. The meaning of the word “constant” in this case is not mathematical, but biological, which means that stable conditions are maintained within certain limits.

The hepatic portal vein, which reaches the liver from the intestine, branches into a very extensive network of capillary vessels. In this way, each of the liver cells comes into contact with the blood that comes from the intestine. Liver cells absorb the nutrients that are brought in by the blood, process them, and store or send the finished products to the blood.

These capillaries unite and form major vessels, and these eventually flow into a single duct, which is the hepatic vein. The blood contained in this vein carries all the food processed by the liver into the body’s general circulation.

Liver types

  • Syphilis thickening, folds and scars on the liver surface
  • Reduceable hepatomegaly with cardiac tonic treatment.
  • Liver that has undergone adipose degeneration or infiltration.
  • Liver in albuminous degeneration.
  • Liver in amyloid degeneration
  • Potassium sulfide.
  • Sun tanning. Bronzed coloration of the liver in malarial cachexia.
  • Static cirrhosis.
  • Waxy Amyloid liver.
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Appearance of the liver in certain varieties of atrophic cirrhosis, in which sclerosis appears as fine nails in the parenchyma.
  • Human liver divided into many lobes like that of the higher apes.
  • Post mortem appearance of the liver with gas-filled spaces produced by anaerobic bacteria especially Clostridium Welchill
  • Floating or wandering. Dislocated and movable liver, hepatoptosis
  • Appearance of the liver in Pick’s disease or chronic constrictive pericarditis.
  • Ice cream. Peri hepatitis with thickening of the Glisson capsule and frozen appearance.
  • Biliary cirrhosis of children.
  • Lardáceo. Amyloid liver.
  • Nutmeg or nutmeg. Aspect of the liver in chronic passive congestion, in which white spots of hypertrophic connective tissue are interspersed with dark areas of poisonous stasis or pigmentary infiltration.
  • Liver with deposition of blood pigment generally a result of tropical malaria, Acute congestion of the liver that is observed in individuals not acclimatized to hot countries, due to heat, excessive nutrition and lack of exercise.

Foundation of the segmental anatomy of the liver

From the beginning of the anatomical studies, a right and a left hepatic lobe were distinguished, the limits of which are drawn by the sickle and round ligaments. These limits are arbitrary, since the internal architecture of the liver also shows a division of the organ into two halves, but the limit runs from the right edge of the gallbladder to the left edge of the vena cava, it is the line bile-cava verse or line from Seregé-Cantlié.

The liver halves (lobes) are divided into four segments each. Those who intensively studied intrahepatic division and were able to determine segmentation based on vascular and biliary anatomy were Ch. Hjortsjö, H. Elías and Couinaud. We therefore distinguish a right liver half and a left liver half.

The caudate lobe, (segment I) due to its vascular supply, would belong to both halves. The hepatic artery , the hepatic duct and the portal vein (Glissonian pedicle) enter the liver through the hepatic hilum, dividing immediately at an angle that reaches 180º, thus providing a pedicle to each of the two hepatic halves.

These pedicles extend on a horizontal surface that divides the two liver halves into a cranial segment and a caudal segment, respectively.

The suprahepatic veins determine a vertical division.

There are three large suprahepatic veins: the middle or sagittal hepatic vein, which runs through the gallbladder-cava line, forming the axis of the middle of the organ and the right and left hepatic veins that run in the parasagittal direction through the corresponding half of the liver, dividing them each of them in a paramedian and a lateral segment.

The suprahepatic veins divide the liver into four vertical sectors, which in turn are each divided by the horizontally extending surface of the hilum formations, into the cranial and caudal segments respectively. In this way eight segments originate, these segments receive different names according to the different authors: See annex


Anatomy and function


The liver is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity, below the diaphragm and above the stomach, the right kidney and the intestines. The liver , a dark reddish brown organ that weighs about 1.3 kg (3 lbs), has multiple functions.


The liver regulates most levels of chemicals in the blood and excretes a product called bile , which helps break down fats, preparing them to continue digestion and absorption. All the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood and breaks down blood nutrients and drugs in ways that are easier for the rest of the body to use. More than 500 liver-related vital functions have been identified. The best-known features include the following:

  • bile production, which helps remove waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion
  • the production of certain proteins from blood plasma
  • the production of cholesterol and specific proteins for the transport of fats through the body
  • the conversion of excess glucose to storage glycogen (glycogen that can then be converted back to glucose for energy)
  • regulating blood levels of amino acids, which are the protein- forming units
  • the processing of hemoglobin to use its iron content (the liver stores iron)
  • conversion of toxic ammonia to urea (urea is one of the end products of protein metabolism and is excreted in the urine)
  • blood purification from drugs and other toxic substances
  • regulating blood clotting
  • resistance to infections by producing immunity factors and eliminating bacteria from the bloodstream

When the liver breaks down harmful substances, they are excreted into the bile or blood. Bile by-products enter the intestine and are eventually eliminated from the body in the form of feces . Blood by-products are filtered by the kidneys and are eliminated from the body in the form of urine .


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