Ligament

Ligament . Band-shaped structure made up of fibrous tissue whose function, in most cases, is to unite and stabilize the bones in the joints . Other ligaments have nothing to do with the joints and connect the organs between them, such as the gastro-splenic ligament that connects the stomach and spleen . Some structures of the peritoneum , the membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity , are also called ligaments, although their function is quite different, which supports organs such as the liver and the uterus.. Ligaments have a very high degree of specialization, since they are extraordinarily defined tissues to fulfill their function.

Types and their function

Connective tissue serves to protect organs, store energy , support body structures, and bind other tissues together . Most ligaments perform the latter function and also help maintain joint flexion or extension. These are the articular ligaments. At the elbow , for example, are the radial collateral ligament, the ulnar collateral, and the annular ligaments. Together they form a set that hold the bones and the gear of the joint together and allows their movement. Other examples of ligament joints are the wrist, pelvis , ankle, or knee. In all there is usually a minimum of three, in the knee there are eight ligaments.

Ligaments belonging to the knee

Other ligaments, such as those found in the back of many joints, serve primarily to give stability to the bone or cartilage to which it is attached. This reinforcing function of another structure is performed by the so-called accessory ligaments. Some accessory ligaments, such as those of the TMJ (temporomandibular joint), are even relatively far from the joint.

There are other structures in the human body that are called ligaments, although they do not serve as a joint for bones and joints. Among them we can find the remaining fetal ligaments, such as the sickle ligament, a remnant of the umbilical vein of the fetus that keeps the liver attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen . In the abdomen we also find the peritoneal ligaments, some folds of the peritoneum, the membrane that covers most of the organs of the abdomen. The peritoneal ligaments surround important veins, such as the hepatic portal vein , offering protection, and fix or support organs of the abdomen and some parts of the female reproductive system..

Ligament ratio

  • Henle lateral accessory ligament: temporomandibular ligament.
  • Acromioclavicular ligament: each of the upper and lower fibrous bundles that are inserted into the acromion and the clavicle .
  • Acromocoracoid ligament: A triangular fibrous lamina that runs transversely from the coracoid process to the acromion and covers the shoulder joint .
  • Alar ligament: each of the two ligaments that connect to the axis of the occipital bone limiting the rotation of the skull
  • Alveolo -dental ligament: periodontal ligament .
  • Yellow ligament: each of the ligaments that join the vertebral laminae to each other, made up of elastic tissue
  • Wide ligament: a ligament that starts from the pelvic wall, continues through the peritoneum and forms two wide wings that surround the uterus and divide the pelvic cavity into two compartments, one anterior and one posterior.
  • Broad liver ligament : crescent- shaped fold of the peritoneum attached to the underside of the diaphragm and connecting the liver to the anterior abdominal wall. Also called hepatodiaphragmatic ligament.
  • Anoccygeal ligament: fibrous tape between the anal sphincter and the apex of the coccyx . It is also called the anococcygeal body.
  • Anterior ligament of the elbow: relatively thin but very resistant tape that covers the capsule of the elbow in all its extension.
  • Annular ligament of radius: Ligament that surrounds the head of the radius and maintains it in the minor sigmoid cavity of the ulna . Distally to said cavity, the annular ligament forms a complete fibrous ring.
  • Pubic arcuate ligament: A semilunar lamina of highly resistant fibrous tissue that extends immediately below the pubic symphysis .
  • Bifurcated ligament: a very robust fibrous band that emerges behind the deep cavity of the calcaneus and divides in front, forming a Y in the calcaneocuboid and calcaneonavicular ligaments.
  • Calcaneofibular ligament: ligament of the calcaneus with the fibula.
  • Calcaneal scaphoid ligament: triangular fibrocartilage between the navicular and the lesser aposphysis of the calcaneus. Also called the calcaneonavicular ligament.
  • Coracoclavicular ligament: ligaments in number of two, anteroexternal and posterointerior between the coracoid process and the clavicle.
  • Coracohumeral ligament: thick, broad fibrous lamina that extends from the coracoid process to the major and minor tubercles of the humerus .
  • Conoid ligament: internal portion of the coracoclavicular ligament.
  • Coracoid ligament: fibrous tape from the coracoid process to the superposterior part of the coracoid notch, which it turns into a hole.
  • Cricoid ligament: suspensory ligament of the esophagus , insertion point of the longitudinal fibers of the esophageal muscular layer.
  • Middle cricothyroid ligament: A ligament of the cricothyroid joint that joins the thyroid cartilage with the cricoid cartilage .
  • Cruciform Ligament: Any cross-shaped string of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones and forms a joint capsule. Examples are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee and the cruciate ligament of the atlas.
  • Cruciform ligament of the atlas: a cross-shaped ligament that joins the atlas to the base of the occipital bone above, and below to the posterior surface of the axis body.
  • Crural ligament: Also called the inguinal ligament, it consists of the edge of the aponeurosis of the greater oblique from the anterior iliac spine to the pubic spine .
  • Ligament of Arancio: remnants of the venous duct of the fetus . Venous ligament of the hepatic portal vein .
  • Arnold’s ligament: fibrous bundle atloido-lateral axoid. Suspensory ligament that connects the anvil to the roof of the eardrum .
  • Bardinet ligament: posterior fascicle, fan-shaped, of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow joint.
  • Barkow’s Ligament: Anterior and posterior ligaments of the elbow joint.
  • Bellini’s ligament: bundle of ligament fibers from the hip capsule to the greater trochanter.
  • Beraud’s ligament: suspensory ligament of the pericardium , which extends to the III and IV thoracic vertebrae
  • Berry ligament: suspensory ligament of the thyroid gland .
  • Bichat ligament: sacrovertebral ligament, which extends from the transverse process of the V lumbar to the base of the sacrum .
  • Bigelow’s ligament: iliofemoral ligament.
  • Borgery ligament: oblique popliteal ligament.
  • Burn’s ligament: sickle cell extension of the fascia lata.
  • Caldani Ligament: bicorneal ligament.
  • Campbell’s ligament: inferior portion of the clavipectoral fascia extended from the pectoralis minor to the armpit ; suspensory ligament of the armpit.
  • Camper’s ligament: deep perineal fascia
  • Carcassonne ligament: middle aponeurosis of the perineum.
  • Casserio Ligament: anterior ligament of the hammer .
  • Chopart’s Ligament: Bifurcated Ligament.
  • Clado Ligament: appendiculoovarian ligament.
  • Cloquet’s ligament: persistent vestige of the fetal canal, which connects the vaginal binica with the peritoneal cavity; Haller’s habenula.
  • Colles’ Ligament: A triangular fibrous band that extends from the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle to the pubic tubercle on the opposite side.
  • Cooper’s ligament: superior pubic ligament. Fibrous area on top of the pubic bone . Arc-shaped fascicles running from the base of the olecranon to the base of the coronoid process at the elbow joint.
  • Fallopian Ligament: inguinal ligament.
  • Ferrein’s ligament: thick outer portion of the capsule of the temporomandibular joint.
  • Gerdy’s Ligament: Ligament bundles from the coracoid process to the armpit skin .
  • Helmholtz ligament: anterior and posterior ligaments of the hammer together with the name of hammer’s axial ligament.
  • Hanle’s ligament: strengthening of the transverse fascia consisting of vertical fibers that are inserted from below into Cooper’s ligament. Also called jock sickle.
  • Henle’s ligament: tendon of the transverse abdominal muscle.
  • Hensing ligament: small serous fold from the upper end of the descending colon to the abdominal wall.
  • Hueck’s ligament: pectineal ligament
  • Hunter’s ligament: round ligament of the uterus .
  • Huschke’s ligament: fold of the peritoneum from the upper portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach to the anterior surface of the pancreas .
  • Lisfranc ligament: fibrous tape from the underside of the first cuneiform to the inside of the base of the second metatarsal.
  • Lockwood Ligament – Suspensory ligament of the eyeball , connecting the Tenon capsule to the orbit.
  • Luschka ligament: fibrous tape extended from the anterior aspect of the pericardium to the posterior aspect of the sternum .
  • Mackenrodt ligament: Also called the uterosacral ligament is the expansion of subperitoneal tissue or enveloping fascia and uterovaginal fixation that extends between the lower portion of the uterus and fixes on the pelvic fascia and sacrum after sheathing the rectum .
  • Mayer’s Ligament: Ligaments in the floor of the carpal duct, which connect one of the carpal bones .
  • Robert’s ligament: bundle of fibers from the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee to the lateral meniscus .
  • Sommerring ligament: suspensory ligament of the lacrimal gland .
  • Teutleben ligament: serous folds that connect the pericardium to the diaphragm.
  • Toynbee’s Ligament: Hammer-tensor anterior ligament.
  • Treitz ligament: Also called the suspensory muscle of the duodenum, it is a fibromuscular bundle that extends from the duodenal flexure to the abutments of the diaphragm.
  • Valsava ligament: Ligament that connects the pinna of the ear with the temporal bone .
  • Weitbrecht ligament: fibrous tape, sometimes double, between the ulna and the radius above the interosseous ligament of the forearm .
  • Winslow ligament: posterior ligament of the knee .
  • Wrisberg’s Ligament: Ligament of the lateral meniscus .
  • Ligament of the ovary: fibromuscular cord that goes from the internal end of the ovary to the corresponding angle of the uterus , below and behind the insertion of the tube , and included in the middle fin of the broad ligament.
  • Toothed ligament: extensions of the pia mater that are inserted into the dura between the exit holes of the nerve endings. Also called denticulated ligament.
  • Dorsal ligament: Name of numerous ligaments of the joints of the carpal , metacarpal , tarsal and metatarsal bones , on the posterior and superior sides, respectively, of the same.
  • Elastic ligament: yellow ligament.
  • Spheno-mandibular ligament: either of the two flat, thin ligaments that are part of the temporomandibular joint, between the branch of the lower jaw and the temporal bone of the skull .
  • Spinoglenoid ligament: a conjunctive or fibrous bundle extending from the spine of the scapula to the edge of the glenoid cavity.
  • Staped ligament: annular ligament tape of the stapes.
  • Sternoclavicular ligament: name of three ligaments, anterior, posterior and superior, that unite the clavicle , the sternum and the first costal cartilage.
  • Sternopericardial ligament: fibrous bundles that link the sternum to the pericardium
  • Stylomandibular ligament: accessory ligament of the temporomandibular joint, extending from the styloid process to the lower angle of the mandible.
  • Sickle Ligament: Suspensory ligament of the liver .
  • Nuchal Ligament: Wide posterior midagital ligament of the neck , which extends from the base of the skull to the seventh cervical vertebra. It is also called the posterior cervical ligament.
  • Pubic ligament: fibrous bundle that extends below the innominate line to the pubic symphysis. Two parts are considered: superior pubic ligament and inferior pubic ligament
  • Periodontal ligament: fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the root of a tooth and connects it to the alveolar bone .
  • Arcuate Popliteal Ligament: Ligament of the knee that extends between the lateral epicondyle of the femur and the head of the fibula.
  • Major sacrocytic ligament: fibrous lamina that extends from the posterior iliac spines and the external iliac fossa to the corresponding border of the sacrum and coccyx and the vertex of the sciatic spine. Also called the sacrotuberous ligament.
  • Supraspinatus ligament: fibrous cord that extends from one end of the spine to the other, intimately adhering to the vertebrae in each of the spinous processes.
  • Suspensory Ligament of the Duodenum: Also called the suspensory muscle of the duodenum or Treitz ligament is a fibromuscular bundle that extends from the duodenal flexure to the diaphragm abutments.
  • Suspensory ligament of the penis: ligament that is inserted in the pubic symphysis and that holds the penis by the deep fascia.
  • Talofibular ligament: each of the two ligaments, anterior talofibular ligament and posterior talofibular ligament that form the fibula joint with the heel.
  • Talonavicular ligament: A broad ligament that runs between the heel and the navicular bone.
  • Middle umbilical ligament: A solid, thin formation that extends the apex of the bladder upward, ascending the abdominal midline. It is a vestige of the urachus and sometimes persists with a residual light
  • Annular ligaments: ligaments that join the tracheal cartilages. Tracheal ligaments.

 

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