The month of Ramadan is a month of grace and blessing, a month where Allah swt. lower forgiveness ( forgiveness ) Himself to His servants.
This month of Ramadan certainly has many privileges. Beginning with the downfall of the Holy Qur’an, there is a night of lailatul qadar, a night full of glory, good deeds multiplied, and the fast of Ramadan itself, coupled with tarawih prayers on the night.
At this time, Muslims all over the world perform Ramadan fasting. Worship is not only enduring hunger and thirst, but also to train ourselves and our souls to continually increase faith and piety.
On this occasion, the author would like to invite to share knowledge and learn together about what is fasting ?? As well as what we have to do when we want to practice fasting ..
Starting from … The Meaning of Fasting
We should know this word fasting in Arabic is also called shiyam or shaum . According to the fasting language it has the meaning of imsak or withholding.
Meanwhile, according to the term, fasting is to refrain or abstain from eating and drinking and all things that cancel fasting from sunrise to sunset, with the harmony and conditions that have been determined.
In addition, fasting worship also participates in controlling lust. Further to fasting is one of the worships that contains the element of patience. Not only is he patient in enduring thirst and hunger, but he is also patient in facing various temptations, and is patient in carrying out the commands of Allah.
Compulsory Fasting and Sunnah Fasting
This fasting service is divided into two types, namely: obligatory fasting and sunnah fasting.
As for the compulsory fasting include:
- Fasting Ramadan
- Fasting Nazar
- Fasting expiation (penalty because of committing an offense)
These include the fast of the sunnah:
- Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays
- Fast six days in the month of Syawal
- Fasting Arafat
- Fasting on the 13th, 14th and 15th of every Qamariyah month , and many others.
The Law of the Fast of Ramadan
From the above explanation, this Ramadan fasting has a compulsory law or fardhu ‘ain . This means that for every man or woman who is Muslim and is of advanced age (and of sound age) and of sound mind, it is mandatory to do so.
The meaning of the obligation is all deeds which if carried out will get reward and if left behind then will get sin. Therefore, those who leave the fasting month of Ramadan are sinners.
Order to Perform Ramadan Fasting.
In order to perform this Ramadan fasting worship, we can find either the Qur’an or the prophetic hadith.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ ١٨٣
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“O you who believe, it is obligatory for you to fast as you must before people so that you may be always in charge” (QS. Al-Baqarah (2): 183).
As for a hadith narrated from Abu Hurairah ra. that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) saw. said
«مَنَ صَمَ رَمَضَانَ, َمَنَا وَهْتِسَابًا, غُُِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ»
“Whoever performs the fast of Ramadan in faith (in Allah) and expects his altar, (then) past sins will be forgiven by Him” (HR. Bukhari)
From the QS explanation. al-Baqarah verse 183 above, we can all know together that the purpose of the fasting person is to always be the one who always fears Allah Almighty.
Followed by the hadith of the prophet who explained that whoever carries out Ramadan fasting with faith and sincerity, God will forgive the sins of that person.
The person who performs the fast of fasting worship means that the person does not just endure hunger and thirst. It is also possible to refrain from all acts and words prohibited by religion.
This is where people who fast, are not allowed to steal, tell lies, abuse their friends, envy, envy and more. This is because the actions or words mentioned earlier can reduce our fasting weight.
Ramadan Fasting Conditions
In carrying out fasting in the month of Ramadan, of course there are many things we must know. Starting from the conditions, harmony, sunnah and things that cancel the fast. But before that, we also have to know when the coming of Ramadan ??
To find out the coming of Ramadan (the first day of Ramadan), there are several ways to find out:
First , rukyat, which is seeing the appearance of the moon at the beginning of the month of Ramadan (as a change of the month) either directly or with assistive devices.
Second , reckoning, namely by using the arithmetic used by experts in determining the number of days in a month
Third , perfecting the number of days in the month of Sya’ban as much as 30 days.
Conditions of Ramadan fasting
When carrying out Ramadan fasting there are conditions that we must pay attention to first. Here there are two types of conditions, namely the obligatory fasting requirements and the legal fasting requirements.
The requirements for fasting are:
- Healthy and mature minded (mature and mature)
- Able or strong to perform fast worship
The legal requirements of fasting are:
- Mumayyiz, is able to distinguish between good and bad
- Sacred from menstruation and childbirth (intended for women)
- At the time or days allowed to fast
The pillars of Fasting
There are two pillars of fasting, namely:
1. Intention at night (for those who are required to fast). The lafadz of Ramadan fasting intentions:
نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ غَدٍ عَنْ Adaِِ Fَrْzِ Shَhِr Rَmَzَanَ هذِهِ السَّنَةِ اللِِعِعَالَى
Nawaitu shauma ghodin ‘an adaa’i fardhi syahri romadhoona haadzihis sanati lillahi ta’aalaa
I intend (intentionally) fasting tomorrow in the month of Ramadan this year due to Allah Ta’ala.
2. Withholding or not eating and drinking as well as anything that can cancel fasting from dawn to sunset
The Sunnah of Fasting (Things That Are Punished when Fasting)
The precepts of performing fasting are:
1. Eat a vegetable with the intention of being stronger in fasting (don’t forget to pray)
2. Ending the meal with food (up to 15 minutes before dawn)
3. Speeding to break
4. Break with dates or sweet foods or drinks
5. Pray before breaking.
«بِسْمِ اللَّهِ, اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ, وَعَلَى رِزْقِكَ ْفْطَرْتُ»
It means: “O God for you, I fast, and for your blessings I break the fast”
6. Feed the others to break the fast
7. Increase the practice of charity during Ramadan
8. Increase reading the Koran (recital) and learned
9. Increase the practices of Sunnah, like i ‘ in retreat in the mosques, prayer tarawih, witli prayers and other sunnah prayers.
Things that cancel fasting
The things that cancel fasting are:
- Eat and drink intentionally.
- Get drunk or lose your mind
- Throw up on purpose
- Crazy or crazy
- Apostate, out of Islam
- Having intercourse (jima ‘) between husband and wife during the day
- Menstruation or teeth (for women)
In addition to those mentioned above, we also must be able to control our desires so that our fasting is maintained. This is because many actions or words that if we do will eliminate or damage our reward.
As explained in the hadith of the Holy Prophet. which means:
“Many people fast, but they do not get the reward of their fasting but only hunger and thirst… ..” (HR. Ahmad)
They Are Allowed To Not Fast
People who are allowed to go without fasting include:
1. People who are sick and unable to perform fast worship. the person must replace or recite the ‘ fast he left the other day
2. People who are traveling long distances or travelers, then that person must make up for the fasting that he left behind.
3. People who have menstruation or miscarriage. Then it is obligatory for him to change or change ‘ his fasting at a later date
4. Mothers who are pregnant and breastfeeding. If the two of them (pregnant and lactating) worried about her health and physical condition it is required to replace or OFF qada ‘ fasting.
However, if they are both concerned about the condition and health of their children, they are obliged to replace their fasts and pay fidyah to the poor
5. People who are elderly or senile, or who are no longer able to perform fasting because of their old age. It is obligatory for him to pay fidyah to the poor.
Wisdom of Fasting
Ramadan fasting, as one of the commands of Allah, and became one of the pillars of Islam. Certainly has a lot of wisdom for humanity. The wisdom of fasting certainly can make us humans more educated and more focused. Then what are the lessons of fasting.
Here are some wisdom we can draw from fasting;
1. To learn to be obedient and obedient to all the commandments of God, and to increase our sense of faith and piety.
2. Educate and train yourself to be a disciplined person. With fasting, making ourselves be on time, including when the time of prayer comes and when it’s time to eat dawn and break the fast
3. Educate and train us all to be honest. People who are fasting. Even if there is food to eat, it still won’t eat or drink even if the surrounding conditions are quiet.
4. Maintain physical and spiritual health. If for 11 months our stomach continues to digest the food we eat and drink. So in one month our digestive organs can rest a few hours.
Our spirits can be healthier too, because people who are fasting can distance themselves from greed, arrogance, jealousy and other bad attitudes. And become more concerned with fellow siblings, who are less able or suffer from hunger.
5. Train yourself to control the passions. As creatures must be equipped with lust, but lust also needs to be controlled. Because human degrees will become despicable if they are not able to control their desires.