Islamic philosophy is a combination of cognitive fields, and it includes several forms such as mysticism, jurisprudence and theology. But Islamic philosophy has known criticism forehead and does not deserve any attention on the part of some orientalists, as they considered Islamic philosophy is only a philosophy written in Arabic letters but its origin is Greek in every detail. It is these criticisms that prompted the Egyptian thinker “Mustafa Abdel Razek” (1947-1885) to write a book “Preface to the History of Islamic Philosophy” in order to respond to the criticisms of Orientalists and to transmit the authenticity of Islamic philosophy. So, can we talk about an Islamic philosophy based on a particular philosophical pattern? Or is it a reproduction of what Plato and Aristotle said?
The researchers differed in the definition of Islamic philosophy, between those who denied its existence and considered it a reproduction of Greek philosophy and that what he wrote (Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Ibn Rushd) is a repetition of what Plato and Aristotle said, this is the view of orientalists, and their evidence for this is that the Arab individual is limited to creating formulas Integrated philosophical. We also find some contemporary Islamists who did not recognize Islamic philosophy out of fanatic religious motivation, considering that the philosophy of Islam is derived from its ideological and cultural origins.
Islamic philosophy is populated by several sources, including: Islamic Sufism, which includes modern Platonism and descends from Christian and Jewish gametes, then jurisprudence and theology. Islamic philosophy emerged with al-Kindندي, al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd, the latter – Ibn Rushd – who was able to establish a philosophical linguistically between jurisprudence and theology. Islamic philosophy per se is jurisprudence and theology, especially with Mu’tazilites, because they have discussed the major issues relying on reason. The contribution of Islamic philosophy is evident in the inclusion of two books in logic: poetry and rhetoric, to become eight books instead of six. “Mustafa Abdel Razek”, through his book “Introduction to the History of Islamic Philosophy”, tried to confirm the authenticity of the pedagogical Islamic school. He also tried to broadcast the peculiarity of Islamic philosophy from Greek philosophy. communication Web-sites
The orientalists’ view of Islamic philosophy is an exuberant view with all the meaning and significance of the word, because they have forgotten that Islamic philosophy is the one who read and questioned the issues that were raised in Greek philosophy, in addition to covering up the Islamic philosophical heritage, which greatly enriched Europe, so who among us does not He knows the extent of the influence of “Abd al-Rahman Ibn Khaldoun” on the thought of Fico, Montesquieu and Auguste Conte, not to mention the precedent of “Imam Ghazali” for the concept of causation, and here was the theoretical prelude that made David Hume produce other ideas in developing the concept of causation. From this standpoint, Islamic thought must be recognized epistemologically.
The problem of Islamic philosophy is profoundly problematic, until “Mustafa Abdel Razek” came in his book “Introduction to the History of Islamic Philosophy”, and “Mostafa Abdel Razek” has responded in this book to the criticisms of orientalists, and the approach that characterized “Mustafa Abdel Razek” is Accuracy and objectivity, and we find this book is a collection of quotes and a little what the author says his opinion, and this is the best evidence of his objectivity and philosophical efficacy. Mostafa Abdel-Razek was studied by both: the role of Kayhem, Emile Brier, and Saint Simon, and when he returned to Egypt he was the first to teach philosophy in Egypt that was suffering from fundamentalist thinking.
It can be said that “Mustafa Abdel Razek” through his book “Introduction to the History of Islamic Philosophy” has tried to confirm the originality of the Islamic school of Mashhayyah, as he tried to broadcast the peculiarity of Islamic philosophy from Greek philosophy by establishing authentic principles.
Mustafa Abdel-Razek has distinguished between three stages that Islamic thought has known : namely , the stage of formation: this stage explains the specificity of Islamic thought. – The stage of interaction with external influences – the stage of production and creativity.
Mustafa Abdel-Razzaq concludes from this division that we must look at Islamic thought evolutionarily while preserving its origin, and also stresses that Islamic thought has a distinct awareness derived from itself and not from outside, and “Mustafa Abdel Razek” also sought to build bridges between philosophy Jurisprudence.
“Majid Fakhry” expresses great regret towards the book “Introduction to the History of Islamic Philosophy”, because the first and second sections of the book revolve around taking a flower with orientalists, and “Majid Fakhry” confirms that it is clear to us through the index of the book that the book “Mustafa Abdel Razek” It does not revolve around Islamic philosophy in the accepted sense, i.e. the meaning used by the philosophers of Islam, al-Kindi and al-Farabi. The book “Introduction to the History of Islamic Philosophy” by its owner, “Mustafa Abdel Razek” is not a study of Islamic philosophy as the author claims, but rather an evolution of the concept of jurisprudence and theology in the first place among Islamists, and the development of the concept of philosophy among Arabs in the second degree, and this book is absent in objective knowledge according to “Majid Fakhri “.