Highly dynamic ecosystems due to the rapid variation of their physicochemical characteristics, level, type or form of water distribution , which, together with the structural complexity of the habitat, makes the microfauna and macrofauna communities continually succeed each other, even under human disturbance. . For this reason, although the area they cover is only 0.03% of Cuban natural wetlands , their conservation importance is very high.
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- 1 Characteristics of rice cookers
- 2 The Rice
- 1 Planting rice
- 2 Rice cultivation
- 3 Classification of rice cookers
- 4 Importance of Rice Cookers
- 5 most important rice fields in Cuba
- 6 See Also
- 7 External links
- 8 Source
Characteristics of rice cookers
Within the concept of wetlands are a set of zones created or modified by man with economic objectives, such as the rice cultivation fields , dams , reservoirs and shrimp aquaculture ponds . Rice agroecosystems, in particular, have been expressed as a partial palliative to the rapid degradation of natural wetlands .
Rice fields are one of the most productive ecosystems developed by man, since despite maintaining a series of negative characteristics of agroecosystems, such as monoculture, accessory energy sources , artificial selection of its main component, and external and directed control instead of internal feedback; They also have a set of dynamic characteristics that make them particular. The cultivation conditions require an alternating cycle of periods of irrigation and drainage that mimics the hydrologynatural of a swamp, to this is added the one that maintains other typical characteristics of its natural counterpart. Food supplies, for example, are very high, promoted by the numerous auxiliary currents of energy provided by man, which give rise to the cultivation fields being full of life.
The rice is a grass marshland that was selected and developed by man for food and has become, today, one of the cereals most important man for their ecological plasticity and the extent of its cultivation. It is a grass of the Poaceae family and of the Oryza genus, where, in addition, there are 25 other species. It is characterized by its adaptation to anemogamous pollination (by air), with a reduction in floral structures and the development of compound inflorescences (panicles). There are two specimens with economic importance:
- The ricecommon Oyzasativa, cultivadoa large scale worldwide, and
- The African riceOryzaglaberfltna, restricted to certain areas of Africa . O. sativa comes
from the Hindustani peninsula and Cambodia, in whose natural swamps there is still its direct wild ancestor, O. Fatua.
The rice fields are very heterogeneous habitats, formed by fields of variable size, subdivided into terraces that occupy between 1 and 2 ha, depending on the unevenness of the terrain. The sowing is carried out in two periods during the year, gradually, due to the extensive areas. The start date of spring and winter planting depends on the availability of water as a limiting factor, so it can vary between years, depending on the supply. Generally, they take place between December and February and from March to August . The growth and development of the plant lasts between 100 to 210 days depending on the variety and the climatic conditions. Its life cycle has two phases:
- Vegetative development (germination, rooting and tillering).
- Reproductive (spike formation and grain maturation.
The rice is grown for 2 800 years BC in the eastern countries, and currently occupy more than any other crop area: 1.5 million km2a global level. Artificial selection has produced hundreds of varieties of this species, the grain of which contains 80% starch, 7.5% protein and 12% water . Currently, more than half of the human population depends, first of all, on him for his food and provides man with a quarter of the calories he ingests. Every year, about 484,000,000 tons are produced, of which 91% correspond to Asian countries. In Cuba , it is the second crop with the largest area after sugar cane, occupies large areas with a high-yield varietal structure that, on average, reaches 4.9 tl, and there are annual productions of more than half a million tons. This crop, which has appeared in our country for more than 200 years, is economically very important, since grain contributes 17% of the calories in the diet of the Cuban population and reaches an average annual consumption per capita. 56 kg.
Rice field classification
Rice paddies have been classified as eutrophic ecosystems with excessively high rates or rates of nutrient and energy recycling as evidenced by the succession of algae. The characteristics of the cultivation cycle lead to the development of complex communities of aquatic invertebrates, which are enriched by specimens that continually enter the floodwater or colonize by air and reproduce in these bodies of water. Studies on the communities of organisms that live in tropical rice fields have been carried out by numerous researchers around the world. In an ecological study of associated flora and faunaAbout 300 invertebrate and 28 vertebrate species were collected from a rice field in Thailand, in fields 20 to 40 cm deep, not counting birds or mammals. All of this makes rice fields excellent bird feeders.
Importance of Rice Cookers
The rice fields are among the most productive ecosystems developed by man, which enables high crop yields, which are maintained with high external energy supplies that are imported into the system throughout the crop cycle. These auxiliary currents carry out a part of the work that in natural wetlands has to be carried out by living organisms, which implies a lower metabolic cost for the community, which translates into greater gross primary production.
Cuba’s most important rice fields
The most important rice fields in Cuba are located along the southern coast, on land that formerly corresponded to natural wetlands, and due to its extension, the South Jíbaro agro-industrial complex, the rice fields of Los Palacios, and the rice fields of Granma stand out .