Black rice

Black rice It is a variety of the cereal, staple food of many cultures, especially Asian, very popular and desired in ancient China, since it was only achievable by the nobility and its consumption and use was prohibited for the poor, that is why it was called “The forbidden rice”.

Summary

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  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Origin of black color in rice
  • 3 News of black rice over traditional
  • 4 News about black rice
  • 5 Black rice in the culinary
  • 6 Cultivation and tradition of black rice
  • 7 Health benefits of black rice
  • 8 Nutritional value
    • 1 Calories
    • 2 Fat
    • 3 Carbohydrates
    • 4 Fiber
    • 5 Other nutrients
  • 9 Anthocyanins in black rice
  • 10 References
  • 11 Sources

Origin

The rice black is a precious commodity since ancient dynasties Chinese [1] .

It is believed that it originated long before, however few writings of the time mention it, perhaps due to the prohibition that existed then that only the nobles and warriors could consume it.

Later, its high nutritional value and its contribution to maintaining health and improving diseases were recognized ; allowing its cultivation and consumption, thus giving way to its knowledge for the rest of the Asian countries and the world.

Origin of black color in rice

The color of the grains in cereals is determined by the pigmentation of certain phytochemicals contained in them.

In rice ( Oryza sativa ), most varieties have white kernels , but some have brown, red , purple, or black kernels .

The red color of the grain is attributable to the deposition and polymerization of oxidative pro-anthocyanidins in the pericarp, while the black color of the cereal is caused by the accumulation of anthocyanins.

Peeled (shelled) grains of black rice

Black rice varieties accumulate anthocyanins in their pericarp, hence the striking coloration of the grains .

Novelties of black rice over traditional

Sometimes called rice ” purple ” or “no”, the rice black is a valuable Asian variety that provides the same benefits as the rice comprehensive, but with them also obtains a set of powerful antioxidants [2] .

Black rice seedling , grown in plastic pot. Note that since childhood its coloration is dark purple

The rice black has an outer shell as rice integrated, making it a little slow cooking compared to white rice but soak for one hour helps accelerate the process.

News about black rice

The world has a wide range of rice varieties , which differ in texture, size, shape, aroma, and stickiness.

Panicle (inflorescence) of black rice . Note that at the beginning it has a green-yellow coloration.

The rice is also available in a wide range of colors ranging from white , chalky white, beige, brown , red , brown and colored purple dark to black [3] .

Rice dark purple color and black derive their dark color of the outer coating bran colored black .

When the rice black is cooked, bran gives a flavor to nut and adds to its dietary fiber .

Several countries such as China , Japan , Thailand , Vietnam , Cambodia , Indonesia , Laos , India , Malaysia and the Philippines, among others, have traditional and improved varieties of black rice .

Panicle full of black rice . Note that the coloration becomes dark purple again

Black rice in the culinary

Currently this type of rice is widely used by world cuisine chefs, especially in Asia , to decorate and decorate their dishes ( sushi , noodles, pudding, among others), since it has a nutty aroma , is wrinkled in texture and when cooked, it acquires a purple hue that makes it very attractive and at the same time provides an extravagant touch.

In addition to its use as a culinary ornament, some health virtues have been discovered, making it even more important, a luxury product, as it was in ancient times for the Chinese.

Researchers at the University State of Louisiana in the United States , discovered that has antioxidant properties, helps control levels of cholesterol in blood and fight disease heart.

Cultivation and tradition of black rice

Since 1993 Inakadate farmers have designed spectacular giant drawings on the rice paddies that surround the town. Large-scale art. But even more spectacular is the slow and painstaking elaboration process used by the peasant-artists of this region of Japan to create these wonders.

Inakadate is a small town in the Minamitsugaru district in Aomori Prefecture, north of Honshū, the main island of Japan .

Legend has it that it all started as a competition between two rival rivals to the death who were not content to just collect the most abundant rice crops , but also intended to harvest the most beautiful ones.

The farmers each year, create magnificent tapestries by mixing rice varieties in their dark purple leaf and yellow leaf with rice itself in the area of green leaf. This art with rice paddies is known in Japan as Tanbo Art .

Ripe black rice plants , potted

In Cuba , black rice lines are grown at the Grain Research Institute in Artemisa province , in order to study its characteristics, evaluate its feasibility and recommend its cultivation as a variety.

So far, the study is carried out only under controlled conditions, for which these are grown in a pot under a protected grow house or greenhouse .

Health benefits of black rice

The rice black has a high content of anthocyanins (pigments set the color of many fruits and vegetables dark as being the eggplants , berries, grapes , the cranberries , etc.) antioxidants, a substance that appears to contribute to the fight against diseases like the cancer , heart diseases and others [4] .

Black rice grains , peeled

Interestingly, it is possible that the darker the rice , the more powerful its nutrients will be. For example, black rice has been found to contain anthocyanins with nutritional attributes similar to those found in blueberries and blackberries.

That’s great news, as studies show that anthocyanins fight a large number of diseases , from cancer to heart disease.

The researchers analyzed black rice bran and found that it was a “useful therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of diseases related to chronic inflammation.”

The rice black also reduced the symptoms of dermatitis in studies, while the rice whole did not have this effect.

Antioxidants lower harmful cholesterol levels by preventing heart disease , they also absorb harmful molecules, protecting arteries and contributing to the deterioration of DNA , which causes cancer .

For years, researchers from various institutions and universities have studied samples of black rice bran , discovering that black rice bran contains large amounts of antioxidant anthocyanins .

It is much richer in nutrients than white rice by preserving the layers that cover it, while it is removed in the various milling and refining processes, thus losing proteins, minerals and various nutrients.

According to these studies, a tablespoon of bran rice black , provides more antioxidants than a blueberry anthocyanins, but provides fewer sugar , fiber and vitamin E .

Studies have also shown that consuming black rice can alleviate inflammation related to asthma , allergies , infectious diseases, heart disease and other associated conditions.

Previous research has yielded data about its suppressive property of histamine, a neurotransmitter that, in response to allergic reactions, produces inflammation .

The various investigations about the properties and benefits of black rice for health are optimistic in the prevention of various conditions and lead to other and more exhaustive studies.

Nutritional value

Calories

Since this rice has evolved over the years, it has absorbed nutrients from local soils . Therefore, different types of rice will have different nutritional properties. Each variety of black rice has its own unique nutritional benefits to your diet . Some varieties contain between 100 and 160 calories per half-cup cooked serving.

Grease

The rice white in general is a low – fat food. Also many of the varieties of black rice do not contain fat.

The carbohydrates

Rice is rich in carbohydrates and has a small amount of protein . The recommended daily carbohydrate intake is 130 g per day, while the recommended protein intake is 46 g for women and 56 g for men . A serving of black rice can contain about 22 to 32 g of carbohydrates and 2 to 5 g of protein .

Fiber

Black rice has a moderate amount of B vitamins and dietary fiber .

Eating high-fiber foods helps you stay full longer after eating. This can be useful if you are trying to lose weight. The rice black generally has about 2 g dietary fiber .

Other Nutrients

This variety of rice has many micro nutrients , vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin B , lipids , calcium , iron , cellulose and especially Omega 6 and Omega 9 , which can help prevent cancer .

Anthocyanins from black rice

The rice black contains one of the highest levels of antioxidants anthocyanins found in foods.

Anthocyanins (from the Greek (Anthos): ‘ flower ‘ + (kyáneos): ‘ blue ‘) are water – soluble pigments found in vacuoles of the cells vegetables and give the colored red , purple or blue to leaves , flowers and fruits .

In higher plants, anthocyanins are found in all tissues , including leaves , stems , roots, flowers, and fruits . Anthocyanins can be confused with carotenoids , which also give color to flowers and leaves , although unlike anthocyanins, they are not soluble in water , but are attached to the proteins of chloroplasts .

The carotenoid give colors red – orange or yellow , while the anthocyanins provide a huge range of colors : malvidin gives purple color, flavones give ivory or yellow ; delphinidin, blue ; cyanidine, violet ; pelargonidin, red and salmon .

Depending on the pH of the soil, the hue of its color varies , since it is given by the hydroxyl groups of the phenolic rings and benzopyrilium, so that in an acid medium (with a pH less than 5) it takes reddish colorations, while in an alkaline medium (with a pH greater than 7) becomes purple .

 

 

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