Popular rice. The characteristics of the varieties and the production of seeds, together with crop protection, are the topics in which rice producers in the non-specialized sector (Popular Rice) show the most interest, given the importance attributed to correct use. of the varieties and the quality of the seed.
[ hide ]
- 1 varieties
- 2 Economic Importance and Geographical distribution
- 3 Features
- 4 Planting time
- 5 Ecosystems
- 6 Source
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
Starting in the years 1996 , the Ministry of Agriculture in Cuba began to promote the non-specialized rice production system and one of the activities was to identify the main varieties that were being used in this sector. In non-specialized rice (Popular Rice) the diversity of motivated to be exploited in a large number of traditional tall varieties, semi-dwarf varieties and selections made both in one and the other, although recently there is a growing trend to use the same varieties of the specialized rice, which would be of great importance since they have resistance to the insect Tagosodes oriciculos Muir(Sogata) as it is oriented in the Varietal Policy for the cultivation of rice. To select the most suitable varieties, it is necessary to know some important aspects for their management.
Economic Importance and Geographical Distribution
Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population, although it is the most important in the world considering the size of the area where it is grown and the number of people who depend on its harvest. Globally, rice ranks second after wheat when considering the area harvested, but considering its importance as a food crop, rice provides more calories per hectare than any other cereal crop. In addition to its importance as food, rice provides employment to the largest sector of the rural population in most of Asia, as it is the typical cereal of South and East Asia, although it is also widely cultivated in Africa and America, and not only widely but intensively in some parts of southern Europe,
There are some characteristics that are very important for variety management, among which are:
- The cycle: from germination to harvest is a very important characteristic for the selection of a variety for planting. In the conditions of Cuba the cycles are defined as follows: short cycles: they are those with less than 130 days in the dry season
(IACcuba 25, IACuba 31, Perla, Reforma, INCA-LP5, etc.); medium cycle: those between 130-150 days in the dry season (J-104, IACuba 21, IACuba 32, IACuba 29, IACuba 30, INCA-LP7, etc.); long cycle, those with more than 150 days in the dry season and photoperiodic varieties, those that only flower in October. In Cuba, long-cycle varieties are scarce and mainly traditional as well as photoperiodic, although in this case there is also the variety [[Caribe 7, which has a type of semi-dwarf plant with high yield potential and good grain quality. . In the humidity season there are no such marked differences in the cycle of the varieties and many times it depends on the management of the crop (irrigation, fertilization, etc.).
- Initial vigor: Vigorous plants allow better competition with weeds, mainly in direct sowing and also allow rapid establishment of the sheet of water.
- Tillering or tillering capacity: It is important to know the capacity of the variety that will be used to define the planting density. This characteristic is also important in transplanting, to establish the distance and the number of plants. Of the most widely used varieties, the reforms have medium tillering (less than 25 children per plant).
- Finishing resistance: It facilitates the harvest, both manual and mechanized and also prevents panicles from coming into contact with the soil, deteriorating and diminishing the quality of the rice. The resistance to bedding is a varietal characteristic, however it is highly influenced by water management, high doses of nitrogen fertilization, high planting densities, etc.
- Plant height: It has been shown that the height of the plant is not a determining factor in agricultural performance, however it is known that the varieties with the highest height have the greatest height.
Tagosodes orizicolus (Sogata). a) Adult Insects and b) Mechanical damage
- Resistance to togosodes orizicolus (Sogata): This insect represents a potential danger due to the mechanical damage it produces and because it is a vector of the White Leaf virus. Varietal resistance has been the backbone of the integrated management of this pest, therefore no susceptible genotype should be used on a commercial scale.
- Latency or dormancy:Refers to the low germination capacity of recently harvested grain. It is a desirable feature for humid environments because it prevents grains from germinating in the particles before harvest. If it is essential to use the seed during the dormancy state, IIArroz specialists and / or the ETIAs should be consulted for advisers in the use of the method to break dormancy with a heat treatment (high temperature).
different forms of exercise of the peninsula
- Panicle exercise. The panicot must fully emerge from the flag daughter’s sheath. The panicle exercise is different between the varieties and it is also very influenced by the environment. In some varieties the particles are well emerged, the temperatures are high, but the exercise is incomplete if the weather is somewhat cold. There is a considerable association between the degree of exercise and the panicle and the appearance of fungal diseases, affecting the neck of the panicle and the grains.
- Grain quality. Producers generally associate it with mill performance and do not take cooking characteristics into account. Most of the varieties released with the breeding program have a percentage of whole grains above 55%, however not all cook the same. Yield in the mill and is influenced by the time of harvesting and the process. A variety of Rice with long and crystalline grains like pearl of Cuba , always has more demand than a variety of short medium grains (IACuba 36) or under crystallinity like J104.
The planting season for rice in Cuba normally covers from December to July 31 and the varieties do not show the same behavior throughout this period, so the best response variety should be used in each season. The studies carried out show that the highest yields are obtained in the dry season (November-February), however the producers must take into account other aspects such as: the availability of water for irrigation and the use of area for another crop high economic impact (garlic, onion, etc.)
Recommended varieties for sowing in the month of November a) IACuba22 and b) IACuba35
If water is available for irrigation, sowing can be carried out in November, for which the IACuba 22 and IACuba 35 varieties are recommended, which have shown good performance in sowing this month.
December sowings should be carried out in medium-cycle varieties, since using the short cycle this month is risky due to possible incidences of low temperatures and strong, dry winds at the time of flowering, which can reduce yield considerably. The variety of short shear perta from Cuba has presented good yields of sowings carried out in the month of December, so they can also be used. Although most of the varieties used in Cuba show tolerance to low temperatures in the seedling phase, they can show damage (yellowing and growth retardation) if the low temperatures are maintained for several days.
In January and February you can use short and medium cycle varieties. In these crops, together with the Dec crops, the variants express their highest yield potential.
The sowings that take place from the month of February – June, are the most affected by the Steneotarsonemus spinki mite, therefore resistant varieties should be used, such as Reforma and the LC88-66 variety. This last variety is little used at present, however it is used in the eastern provinces and also in the municipality of La Palma in Pinar del Río.
The new varieties such as INCA-LP5, INCA-LP7,
IACuba 31, IACuba 32, IACuba 33, IACuba 35 and IACuba 36 also present good results if the
Recommended agronomic practices are carried out .
Planting should be avoided in the month of August, because at this time the yields are low and the arrival of an early cold front may also reduce the yield. If it is necessary to sow in August, it is recommended that it be done with short cycle varieties and mainly in the eastern provinces.
For dry land conclusions, where the cultivation depends exclusively on the rains and the topography does not allow to accumulate water in the fields, traditional varieties must be used, which have a deeper root system than the semi-dwarf varieties. Producers using this cultivation system are using selections of traditional varieties such as Blue Bonnet, Blue Belle, Gloria, etc. The LC88-66 variety has shown good behavior in this ecosystem.
In favored rainfed conditions (low inputs), where the rains are used and there is also availability of water to carry out some irrigation, improved varieties can be used, selected under these conditions as IACuba 29 and IACuba 30, in addition to others among which they can point to IACuba 31 and IACuba 36 (White Chinese). Additionally, it should be noted that the IACuba 30 variety has shown a high content of iron and zinc, so it has a higher nutritional value in comparisons with other varieties. The IACuba 29 and IACuba 30 varieties have become widespread in the provinces of Havana and Camagüey, while IACuba 36 (Chino Blanco) is widely used in the eastern provinces.
Under sanitary conditions, the varieties IACuba 25 (short cycle) and INCA-LP7 (medium cycle) should preferably be used. These varieties were selected under salinity conditions and have high potential for agricultural and industrial performance. Recently, product reports have been received from the municipality of Santa Cruz del Sur in Camagüey , on the good behavior of the IACuba 30 in these conditions.
Most of the varieties used in Cuba have a good behavior when grown under irrigation conditions, however some varieties have been selected for low input conditions such as IACuba 29, IACuba 30 and IACuba 36, they tend to burn out when grown in these conditions with nitrogen fertilizer applications.
There are areas (mainly swampy areas), which are prone to flooding during the rainy season. In this area, early plantings can be carried out with some photoperiodic varieties that flower after mid-October and the harvest would take place when the water level has dropped, at the end of November. The Caribbean 7 photoperiodic variety can be used in these conditions .
Some growers sometimes use sapling crops (also known as “soca” or “recape.” Generally, in our conditions, short-cycle varieties, such as Amistad 82 and Perla de Cuba, have a higher sapling capacity. The Prosequisa 4 variety has been introduced, which was released in the Dominican Republic for this cultivation system.