Femoral artery

Femoral artery. Prolongation of the external iliac artery in the lower extremity, which begins immediately below the crural arch and ends at the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the thigh .

Summary

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  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Path
  • 3 Relationships
  • 4 branches
  • 5 Clinical importance
  • 6 Diseases
    • 1 Occlusion
    • 2 Aneurysm of the femoral artery
    • 3 Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm
    • 4 Obstruction of the Femoral Artery
    • 5 Femoral Artery Pain
  • 7 Sources

Definition

They are a total of two large, large blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the lower limbs and pelvis . They originate in the external iliac artery and then pass below the ligament of the groin to descend down to the knee , at the level of the adductor major muscle . It is the prolongation of the vein aorta and becomes the popliteal artery after the knee. It is the artery where the catheter is most frequently placed during coronary angiography

Journey

It is an artery of the thigh, which supplies blood. It begins in the femoral triangle, behind the inguinal ligament (usually near the head of the femur ). It comes from and is a continuation of the external iliac, which becomes femoral after passing the inguinal ligament.

It runs along the front of the thigh along the femur to supply blood to the arteries around the knee and foot , then backwards to enter the adductor duct (a gap between the adductor muscles). After leaving the duct through the adductor hiatus, and already in the popliteal region (behind the knee), in the adductor duct, it is called the popliteal artery

It is distributed over the lower portion of the abdominal wall, upper portion of the thigh, genitals, knee and leg. Its branches are the superficial epigastric, external pudendal, deep femoral.

Relations

It successively passes through the femoral ring , the Scarpa triangle and below it.

  1. a) In the femoral ring:
  • Back and down with iliopectineal eminence.
  • Up and forward with the fecal ring.
  • Inward with the femoral vein and the Gimbernat ligament .
  • On the outside with the iliopectineal tape, through which it is related to the femoral nerve and the psoas.
  1. b) In the Scarpa triangle:
  • At the back with the channel formed by the psoas and the pectineus.
  • With the cribriform fascia.
  • With the femoral vein.
  1. c) Below the Scarpa triangle:
  • Behind and inside with the adductor major and median.
  • Out with the vast inner.
  • Inward with the sartorius.
  • Throughout its journey, the femoral artery is covered with a fibrous sheath.

Branches

  • Superficial epigastric or subcutaneous abdominal artery.
  • Superficial external pudendal artery or superior external pudenda.
  • Deep external pudendal artery or inferior external pudenda.
  • Descending artery of the knee or magna anastomotic.
  • Accessory arteries of the quadriceps.
  • Deep femoral artery.
  • Superficial iliac circumflex artery

Clinical importance

Since the femoral artery can often be palpated through the skin, it is often used as an access artery for catheters. From it, guides and catheters can be directed to any part of the arterial system for intervention or diagnosis, including the heart , brain , kidneys, and upper and lower limbs. The direction of the needle with which the artery is punctured should be against blood flow (retrograde) in case of intervention and diagnosis made towards the opposite heart or leg, or in favor of flow (antegrade or ipsilateral) for diagnosis and intervention on the same leg.

Access through the left or right femoral artery is possible, and depends on the type of intervention or diagnosis.

Diseases

Occlusion

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (POAD) is a disease that results from inflammatory processes or atherosclerotic processes that causes strictures or narrowing of the lumen. Also called theFemoral artery disease. It can also result due to thrombus formation, as it is often associated with the underlying atherosclerotic disease. An increase in this disease can lead to vessel resistance which in turn leads to a reduction in distal perfusion pressure. The conditions of peripheral arterial occlusive disease are very similar to those found in coronary artery disease.

Symptoms and Consequences The most severe effect of POAD is that it can lead to limb ischemia . Under mild conditions, increased resistance to flow can lead to decreased blood flow during limb exercise. This condition is known as decreased active hyperemia. Very sharp reductions in perfusion pressure results in a decrease in vascular resistance and therefore maintains normal blood flow.

Aneurysm of the femoral artery

Aneurysm or widening of the artery normally occurs in the groin as the femoral artery is normally found in the joint. It is a condition that is demonstrated by the localized, blood filled balloon like bulging and weakening of the walls of the blood vessels. It can happen in the aorta or blood vessels , too, other than that it occurs in the femoral artery. Symptoms

Aneurysms are more common in men than in women. The cause of the aneurysm is not known. If the aneurysm is very small, then it may not even be seen. However, for some people, the symptoms may appear in the form of a mass, which may even be pulsations. Leg cramps while exercising can also cause problems. The patient may need to seek medical treatment to heal from this disease.

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Whenever a penetrating injury occurs in the femoral artery, a bubble may form in the artery. There may be blood leaking from the walls of the arteries. This function is called a hematoma, which develops around the walls and then liquefies to form a pulsating bubble, known as a pseudoaneurysm. The most common way this feature may occur is during cardiac catheterization through the femoral artery.

Femoral Artery Obstruction

Sometimes blood clots can occur in the artery due to atherosclerosis or any other reason. When this blockage occurs in the leg artery, it is known as obstruction of the femoral artery. This blockage can be represented by the form of severe leg cramps and leg pain. Thisblocked symptoms

  • Cramps in the legs, thighs, or calves
  • Discoloration of the skin
  • Weak pulse in the leg
  • Slow wound healing
  • Impotence in men.

The condition after diagnosis should be treated at the same time. Surgery may be necessary to remove the obstruction.

Femoral Artery Pain

Pain can be caused in the femoral artery due to many reasons. The main reason is blockage of the artery. Pain experienced in the legs or feet, as blood cannot flow downward due to obstruction. Symptoms

  • Sudden or sudden rash of pain.
  • Abdominal pain
  • The pains during the exercise session.

Causes

  • Hernia
  • Kidney stones
  • Conditions like bone arthritis, dislocations, and fractures
  • Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the groin
  • Groin pain in women

 

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