Erosion: What it is, Types and Consequences

Erosion as well as desertification are two serious environmental problems that are growing thanks to man, global warming and climate change. It is essential to address this environmental problem as a problem that deserves much attention today more than ever for the entire population and hence this article related to this problem for an education and awareness of humanity.

Erosion is the wear, decrease and deterioration of the earth’s surface due to factors of human activities and agents such as water, ice, winds, thermal changes and other hydrological bodies. In addition, it is made up of these factors such as rocks, soil, water and wind that impact the earth.

This is mainly caused by man and his unsustainable activities with natural resources, relief, rock fragments, wind, water and environmental problems such as deforestation, forest fires, environmental pollution, solid waste, illegal mining , conventional agriculture, natural phenomena, global warming and climate change.

It is important to highlight that erosion is not the same as desertification, since the latter is due to soil erosion, destruction of vegetation cover and lack of water. Desertification is the impoverishment and degradation of terrestrial natural resources due to climatic conditions and human activities.

Types of Erosion

There are 3 types of erosion:

  • Water erosionformed by the marine, river, glacier and phase changes.
  • Wind erosionproduced by wind or air.
  • The gravitational erosioncaused by gravity.

On the other hand, the main consequences of the erosion problem are:

  • Desertification
  • Degradation of the vegetation cover.
  • Biodiversity loss.
  • Loss of soil productivity.
  • Sediments and nutrients accumulated.
  • Impact on water resources.
  • Reduction of fertile land.
  • Increase in aridification.
  • Increase in climate change and global warming.
  • Deterioration of ecosystems and landscapes.
  • Ecological imbalances
  • Economic losses.
  • Affectation in agriculture.
  • Land and degraded crops.
  • Floods

Measures and Actions

For all the above, it is important to combat this environmental problem of erosion, to implement the following measures or actions such as:

  • Reforestation or tree planting.
  • Organic farming
  • Ecological production.
  • Ecological tourism
  • The winds break.
  • Gabions
  • Firewall
  • Environmental Conservation.
  • Conserve wetlands
  • Maintenance and restoration of ecosystems and habitats.
  • Environmental sanitation

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