The top layer of the earth’s surface consists of various types of materials and also various forms. Relief on the surface of the earth is mostly bumpy and not flat. The causes of the diversity of landscapes on this earth can vary.
There are those that occur as a result of endogenous processes or processes that take place in the earth, and some are due to exogenous processes or processes that take place from outside the earth. One example of a landscape that can occur as a result of an exogenous process is erosion.
Erosion is one of the causes of the formation of diverse landscapes on this face. So, what is the meaning of erosion and what kinds of erosion are there? The following explanation.
Erosion is also often referred to as erosion. Understanding erosion itself can be understood as the erosion process that occurs on the surface of the earth due to water, wind or ice. So, in essence erosion is the process of eroding the surface layer of the earth.
In the process of erosion, soil or rock masses are broken down and transferred with the help of hydropower, ice, wind, and gravity and others.
When an area occurs a lot of erosion or erosion, the layer of soil flowers will disappear. As a result, the area will become barren faster. The duration of this erosion process can vary. For example, if forests lack more trees or barren, erosion can take place more quickly.
The occurrence of erosion will affect a lot of changes in the earth’s crust. For example, mountains can be reduced in height, sharp mountain peaks will become rounded, lowlands can get higher, seas on the seashore will decrease in depth, canyons will increase in size, and so on.
Erosion can indeed take place in various regions of the earth’s surface, depending on the type of erosion that occurs. There are various types of erosion known. The distribution of types of erosion is generally based on the process or cause of erosion.
Kinds of Erosion
To be clear, the following is a list of the types of erosion that exist, all of which have 10 types.
1. River water erosion
River water erosion takes place due to the volume of water that flows quickly and with a fairly large water discharge, while carrying a variety of solid objects. This water flow will cause erosion upstream so that formed valleys, canyons, rivers, and deep ravines.
Examples due to river water erosion are the Anai valley, Grand Canyon Colorado, Sianok Gorge, and Victoria Rapids.
2. Seawater erosion (abrasion)
Sea water erosion is more commonly known as abrasion. Erosion of sea water is caused by the sea waves that hit the beach cliffs continuously so that damage occurs. Destruction of these beach cliffs is called abrasion or marine erosion.
Examples of landscapes due to seawater erosion or abrasion can be seen in Redondo, the southern tip of the Gulf of Santa Monica, California, USA.
3. Ice erosion (glaciers)
The ice referred to here is more commonly known as a glacier. This ice erosion occurs when a pile of ice moves slowly down then erodes valleys in the mountains. The existence of a current of ice that flows is called a glacier.
Because the erosion that occurs is caused by ice power, the ice erosion is also referred to as exarations. The result of deposition deposited in this process is called moraine.
4. Wind erosion (corrosion)
Erosion that occurs by the wind is also often referred to as corrosion. The process of erosion caused by wind occurs a lot in areas that are rather dry, such as in the desert region.
The results of the destruction of a landscape that has been turned into a very easy to be blown by the wind so that it can form fungi and sand dunes.
5. Erosion splatter ( splash erosion )
Splash erosion is a type of erosion in the form of fine soil splashes that occur due to rain drops when splashed on rocks or soil. This type of erosion can cause the material or soil to become weathered and very easily destroyed.
6. Erosion surface / sheet erosion ( sheet erosion )
Surface erosion is also often referred to as sheet erosion. Sheet erosion occurs by breaking up soil particles in a nearly uniform layer of soil, resulting in a uniform appearance.
This erosion occurs when the topsoil disappears. Surface erosion can cause the soil to become barren because the topsoil that determines soil fertility is lost. (Check out more: How to Maintain Soil Fertility )
7. Erosion groove ( rill erosion )
Groove erosion is a type of erosion that occurs due to soil erosion resulting in grooves in the direction of the slope. The resulting grooves generally have a depth of 30 cm and a width of less than 50 cm.
Groove erosion is very easy to recognize because of its appearance like a groove in the mountain slope. In addition, channel erosion is more common in recently cultivated lands.
8. ditch erosion ( gully erosion )
Trench erosion is a type of erosion caused by water very strongly. Because it is so strong, the slopes affected by the erosion of the trench will be shaped like a trench V or U. The erosion of this trench is also a further form of channel erosion. Trench erosion produces furrows with a depth of more than 30 cm and a width of more than 50 cm.
9. River bank erosion ( stream bank erosion )
River bank erosion occurs when the river valley becomes wider, which is caused by erosion in the river wall (lateral erosion). Generally, river bank erosion occurs in downstream areas of the river.
10. Erosion waterfall ( waterfall erosion )
Waterfall erosion is erosion that occurs when there is a waterfall power that causes erosion. Waterfall erosion is generally vertical. As for the position or location of the waterfall, little by little it will move back towards the river upstream. This is why waterfall erosion is also called mudik erosion.