The concept of deep structure and surface structure are basic in understanding that Chomsky generative grammar. Chomsky argues that deep structures of language can give the true meaning of what appears externally. At a deep level of thought, he has full knowledge of what he wants to communicate to others.
The deep structure is the core of the semantic relations of a sentence and is reflected through changes in the surface structure which follows very closely the phonological form of the phrase. What makes it possible to transform the sentences is only the competence of the speaker.These are some of the rules that belong to the competence of the speaker. Competence is thus the system of rules that is in the mind of the speaker and that constitutes his linguistic knowledge.
Here Are Some Easy Examples About Deep Structure Where You Can Understand This Noam Chomsky Generative Grammar.
Perhaps, to understand well it is best to present some examples:
1: The strong wind toppled trees Example
2: The wind was very strong, felled trees Example
3: The wind was very strong. It toppled trees.
We can see above sentences and see; these three sequences say exactly the same. It is stated therein that the wind was very strong, and very strong winds that downed trees. They are therefore identical deep (or latent) structure. We can see the deep structure supports or contain the meaning of the sentence. The surface structure is the manner in which information is presented, being said or written.
Let’s see how they work:
Example No. 1:. “The blow broke his septum”
Example # 2. “The coup, which was strong, he broke his septum”
Example No. 3:”The blow was strong. He broke his septum”
As can be seen, all three statements are saying the same. The information transmitted mentions that there was a strong blow and that blow someone broke the wall. Therefore, it can be said that the three examples have the same deep or surface structure.However, these statements have different words. The word “that” , for example, only appears in the second example. First, unlike the other two, not include the word “was” .Moreover, all three statements are ordered differently and show internal breaks that are not identical. Therefore, these examples have a different surface or surface structure.
The deep structure is one that contains the meaning of the statement; the surface structure, however, is the way by which prayer is presented. It can be said that the deep structure is abstract and that the surface structure is a physical reality.Chomsky also addressed the ambiguous statements, in which a surface structure correspond several deep structures. For example: “I make my bed”, which can refer to someone who tends sheets or someone building a bed.Notably, according to Chomsky grammar, all languages share the same deep structure about a certain statement and are differentiated by the surface structure.