Modern linguistics is the product of a long and rather controversial historical development of linguistic knowledge. And many of its problems can be better understood in the historical aspect, when referring to the distant or recent past of the science of language, to the peculiarities of its development in the different ethnocultural contexts.
#1.Modern Linguistics: Course of activities
Initial elements of linguistic knowledge formed in the course of activities related to the creation and improvement of writing, teaching him, compiling dictionaries, the interpretation of sacred texts and the texts of old monuments, development of sounding speech patterns (especially poetry), the search for how best to influence the magic word in priestly rites and etc. But gradually expanded range of tasks, analysis were subjected to more and more aspects of language, construction of new linguistic discipline, formed new methods of research. So today Linguistics is a system that combines a lot of linguistic sciences, which only combine to give us a fairly complete knowledge of all aspects of human language in general, and all the individual languages.
You Must Know about modern linguistics to understand the scope of linguistics.
But gradually expanded range of tasks, analysis were subjected to more and more aspects of language, construction of new linguistic discipline, formed new methods of research. So today Linguistics is a system that combines a lot of linguistic sciences, which only combine to give us a fairly complete knowledge of all aspects of human language in general, and all the individual languages.
#2.Modern Linguistics: Ethnic cultures
Modern linguistics, then, is the product of cognitive activity, which was carried out the efforts of representatives of many ethnic cultures, in different regions and countries around the world. Already a number of centuries ago the results of linguistic research in any of the national scientific school through books and magazines became known to colleagues from other countries. The exchange of ideas also contributed widely practiced in the 19th century. travel for training or study in other countries leading linguistic centers. In the 20th century. international conference of linguists have become quite frequent.
#3.Modern Linguistics: The 20th century
In the second half of the 20th century. We began to rapidly improve the technical means of communication, and by now we already have enormous potential rapid exchange linguistic information through e-mail (electronic mail, e-mail), newsgroups (news groups), teleconferences, voice communication (voice mail), Web pages etc.
Rising over time linguists contacts between different national schools and traditions, the interchange of ideas and concepts lead to what is now based on the internationalization of the process rather quickly formed a kind of world linguistics.
It can now, apparently, viewed as a holistic science of international, global scale. At the same time, however, it is impossible not to see that it has a plurality of individual national traditions, sometimes so divergent that it is necessary to question the presence of planetary unity.
#4.Modern Linguistics: Active cooperation of national linguistic schools
Active cooperation of national linguistic schools currently can not be denied. Nevertheless, the internationalization of linguistic knowledge – it is rather a trend observed today. It is impossible not to see that in an effort to convergence of national schools quite often appreciably traced desire to focus on Eurocentric understanding of the language. The last decades are characterized, in addition, the active expansion of the ideas developed by American linguists.
#5.Modern Linguistics: The spiritual and its general scientific climate.
So while the story of the world of linguistics – is primarily a history of linguistics in each particular country or a particular region of the world, in every single culture. In any case, it can not be built in isolation from the cultural, social and political history of the country, where there is appropriate and develops linguistic tradition, the spiritual and its general scientific climate.
#6.Modern Linguistics: Improvement of systems of writing
Differently in different cultural areas are, as evidenced by the history of our science, the pace of development of linguistic knowledge and direction of scientific research. Some resorts in the initial stage in the foreground appeared the problem of the invention and improvement of systems of writing and interpretation of written texts (China, ancient Greece), in others – the problem of sounding speech (India). In some habitats linguistic quest focused on for many hundreds and even thousands of years, mainly in the lexicographical activity, such as in China, but in other habitats they were directed primarily at the grammatical analysis (as was the case in the Greco-Roman linguistics and it is based on the current European linguistic tradition). Some linguistic traditions of linguistics is relatively self-employment, in others it is only one aspect of the epistemological and practical activities of a broader plan.
#6.Modern Linguistics: Different national traditions of linguistic sets
It is not always the same in the different national traditions of linguistic sets of linguistic disciplines, their hierarchical ordering of the basic units of language analysis, methods of research. A variety of approaches to search for contacts with related sciences, to establish a language place in the hierarchy of human values.