Class Management – Definition, Objectives, Principles, Problems and Examples – Class managementis the process of planning, organizing, mobilizing, and supervising teacher learning activities with all the use of resources to achieve predetermined learning goals effectively and efficiently. Management is a series of activities or actions intended to create conditions that allow the learning to take place. Class management is an important requirement that determines the creation of effective learning.
The creation of a comfortable classroom is a study of class management, because class management is a series of teacher behaviors in their efforts to create and maintain classroom conditions that allow students to learn well. The effectiveness of classroom management depends very much on how the teacher understands various aspects of its implementation.
Innovation in the field of education continues to be encouraged to solve the problems faced in the education field. Innovations in the field of education such as curriculum, teaching methods, learning media, education administration, and learning strategies. The implication of innovation in the field of education is that the size of the success of the teaching and learning process of teachers in the classroom is changing, the demands of class order have also changed.
Teachers teach without preparing unit lessons, without media, without variations in methods, quiet classroom conditions without the activities of students doing assignments or doing learning activities for the achievement of learning objectives, is not a good class, and it needs to be avoided. There is a change in the demand for classroom conditions / order so that the learning process is more quality, so the teacher needs to know the class management in the learning process. Every learning process with a certain method, media, approach requires a certain class atmosphere.
Quality learning is not only determined by curriculum renewal, facilities available, sympathetic teacher personality, learning that is full of impressions, extensive teacher knowledge insight in all fields, but also teachers must master the tips of classroom management. Every teaching and learning activity implies the achievement of objectives, both instructional goals and accompaniment goals. However, it cannot be denied that the situation in the class often does not go as expected.
Teachers’ efforts to create and maintain conditions that are expected to be effective if:
- precisely known factors that can support the creation of favorable conditions in the teaching and learning process;
- know the problems that are expected and that may grow that can damage the teaching and learning climate; and
- mastered various approaches in classroom management and also known when and for which problem an approach is used (Entang and Joni, 1983: 7).
Teaching is a series of activities that intend to facilitate students to achieve educational goals directly. Class management is all the efforts of teachers in managing learning activities in order to achieve learning goals that have been set effectively and efficiently. Class management determines the success of learning done by teachers and students.
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So it seems clear that the role of the teacher in classroom management largely determines the effectiveness of the learning activities carried out by the teacher and students. Class management comes from two words namely management and class . What does management mean? Management comes from the word manage which means taking care, leading, achieving, and commanding.
Management comes from Latin, which is manus which means hand, and agere which means to do (Usman, 2009: 5). The two words combined into managere , which means dealing with, do it by hand. Usman (2009: 5) argues managere translated into English, in the form of the verb to manage , nouns management , and managers to people who perform management activities.
- Management according to the Indonesian Dictionary (2008: 909-910) is: (1) the process of using resources effectively to achieve predetermined targets; and (2) effective use of resources to achieve goals.
- Stoner (1995) argues that management is a process of planning, organizing, directing and supervising the efforts of the members of the organization and using a variety of other organizational resources to achieve the desired organizational goals.
- Hasibuan (1990) states that management is the science and art of regulating the process of utilizing human resources and other resources effectively and efficiently in achieving certain goals.
- While Siagian (2002) states that management is the ability and skills to obtain results in the context of achieving goals through the activities of others.
Meanwhile Brech argued that management of a social process entails responsibility for the effective and economic planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task (Williams, 2006: 4).
The same thing was stated by Williams (2006: 4) which states that management involves making plans and decisions about the future needs of the business ; management is about making cost-effective use of resources through efficient organization and control ; and management is about getting the best out of people to achieve objectives .
The same thing was stated by Herujito (2006: 2) who argues that management is the management of a job to get results in order to achieve the goals that have been determined by moving other people to work. Based on these expert opinions, it can be concluded that management is a structuring process involving all potential resources, both human and non-human, in order to achieve the goals set effectively and efficiently.
Imron (2003: 4-5) emphasizes several elements contained in the understanding of management, namely:
- the existence of a process, this shows that there are certain stages that must be done if someone does management activities;
- the existence of structuring, meaning the real meaning of management is the arrangement, management, and regulation;
- the existence of potential sources that must be involved, both human and non-human sources, but emphasizes the involvement of potential human resources, because the involvement and management of potential human sources, will automatically lead to the ordering of non-human potential sources;
- the existence of goals to be achieved, because the involvement of potential human and nonhuman sources is not a goal, but rather as an instrument to achieve certain goals and missions; and
- achievement of these objectives strived to be effective and efficient.
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Next what is meant by class?
Class is a space for learning in schools (Indonesian Language Dictionary, 2008: 669). When discussing class, then someone would normally perceive that the class is a walled room, in which there are tables, chairs, blackboards, and other furniture used by the teacher and students carrying out learning activities. Wiyani (2013: 53) states that class is a building that cannot be moved or moved.
This understanding is a narrow understanding of the class. While broad understanding of the class are all places that can be used and / or accessed by teachers and students to do learning that is not limited by space and time. So that the class has a broad scope, where there is interaction between the teacher and the students related to discussing science, then the place can be called a class. As technology develops, vehicles for carrying out learning activities are increasingly complex and sophisticated. Learning is not only done face-to-face, but can be done without face-to-face, such as learning with e-learning systems .
Meanwhile Arikunto (1988) argues that class is a group of students who at the same time receive the same lessons from the same teacher. Based on this opinion it can be seen that if there is a group of students who at the same time receive the same lesson from different teachers, it is clear that it cannot be called class. Based on the explanation, it is known that the class is a group of students who are taught together or a location where the group conducts the learning process activities at a time and place that is formally conditioned. Class is a group of students who at the same time receive the same lesson from the same teacher.
Nawawi which defines class as a small community which is part of the school community as a whole is organized into work units that dynamically organize creative teaching and learning activities to achieve goals (Rohmad, 2009: 69). While Wiyani (2013: 52) defines class as the smallest work unit in a school that is used as a place for teaching and learning activities. As a smallest work unit in a school, in a class consists of a group of students and various learning infrastructure. A group of students is certainly not homogeneous, but heterogeneous, ranging from differences in gender, height, age, level of intelligence, talent, interests, to different types of learning.
Based on the opinions of the experts above, it can be seen that in essence the class is a collection of individuals who have different characteristics and is the most dominant vehicle for the implementation of the learning process for students. Such class position is important, indicating that in order for the education and learning process to take place effectively and efficiently, professional teachers are needed in conducting classroom management through the classroom management approach.
In order for classroom conditions to make a positive contribution to the effectiveness of the learning process, the teacher must be able to create and engineer the class conditions they face in such a way. This effort will be effective when the teacher understands precisely the factors that support the creation of favorable learning conditions, such as inventorying the problems that are expected to arise so that it can damage the climate of teaching and learning, master various classroom management approaches, find solutions and the best alternatives for solving problems encountered during the teaching and learning process, planning what should be done in the teaching and learning process.
Class management is the art and practical work done by teachers, both individually, with or through others (such as team teaching with peers or students themselves) to optimize the learning process. When referring to the management process, class management also has a process, namely planning, implementation, and supervision (evaluation).
Planning refers to learning planning and its supporting elements, which include annual programs, semester programs, syllabi, lesson plans, evaluation instruments, and assessment rubrics. The meaningful implementation of the learning process carried out by the teacher and students in the class. Whereas supervision in the form of learning evaluation consists of types, namely evaluation of the learning process and evaluation of learning outcomes.
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Classroom Management Objectives
The purpose of classroom management is inherently contained in the objectives of education. Generally the purpose of classroom management is to provide facilities for a variety of student learning activities in the social, emotional and intellectual environment in the classroom. The facilities provided that enable students to learn and work, the creation of a social atmosphere that provides satisfaction, an atmosphere of discipline, intellectual development, emotional and attitude and appreciation for students “Djamarah and Zain, 2010: 178”.
Class management is a conscious effort to organize the activities of the teaching and learning process systematically. The conscious effort includes the preparation of teaching materials, the provision of facilities and teaching aids or learning media, organizing the learning space, and creating a conducive learning atmosphere, so that learning objectives can be achieved. The teacher in carrying out classroom management must understand the activities in class management or aspects of class management. Classroom management by the teacher is not without purpose. Because there is a goal that the teacher always tries to manage the class, although sometimes physical or mind fatigue is felt. Teachers are aware without managing the class properly, will have an impact on the inhibition of teaching and learning activities.
Things like that are the same as letting the teaching run without bringing results, namely a change in the behavior of students who become better behavior, lead students from not knowing to knowing, from understanding to understanding, and from not being knowledgeable to being knowledgeable. Of course there is no doubt that every time you enter the classroom, the teacher always carries out his task of managing the class. Class management is intended to create conditions in class groups in the form of a good classroom environment. Class management is intended to create conditions in class groups in the form of a good classroom environment, which allows students to act according to their abilities. Then with the management of the product class must be in accordance with the objectives to be achieved.
The aim of classroom management is to provide facilities for a variety of student learning activities in the social, emotional and intellectual environment in the classroom. The facilities provided that enable students to learn and work, the creation of a social atmosphere that provides satisfaction, an atmosphere of discipline, intellectual development, emotional, and an attitude of appreciation to students. Arikunto (1988: 68) argues that the goal of classroom management is that every child in the class can work in an orderly manner so that the teaching objectives are achieved effectively and efficiently.
If it refers to the definition of classroom management, the purpose of class management is to create an atmosphere or class conditions that allow students in the class to learn effectively. Some definitions of class management, as explained in the Section on Understanding Class Management above, can be understood based on old concepts, based on modern concepts, and based on the view of certain operational approaches.
Class management according to the old conception is defined as an effort to maintain class order. Teachers according to the old conception are tasked with creating, improving, and maintaining a class organization system so that individuals can utilize their abilities, talents, and energy on individual tasks (Johnson and Bany, 1970). While class management according to the modern conception is a selection process that uses the right tools for the problems and situations of classroom management.
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Class management based on the view of certain operational approaches according to Weber (1993) are:
- a set of teacher activities to create and maintain classroom order through the use of discipline (authoritarian approach);
- a set of teacher activities to create and maintain classroom order through intimidation (bullying approach);
- a set of teacher activities to maximize student freedom (permissive approach);
- a set of teacher activities to create a classroom atmosphere by following the instructions or recipes that have been presented (cookbook approach);
- a set of teacher activities to create an effective classroom atmosphere through quality and well-implemented learning planning (instructional approach);
- a set of teacher activities to develop desirable student behavior by reducing undesirable behavior (behavioral change approach);
- a set of teacher activities to develop good interpersonal relationships and positive class socio-emotional climate (approach to creating a socio-emotional climate); and
- a set of teacher activities to grow and maintain an effective classroom organization (social systems approach).
Based on the explanation above, it can be seen that the purpose of classroom management is to create an atmosphere of effective and enjoyable teaching and learning that can motivate students to learn well according to their abilities. Class management is a conscious effort that aims to organize the activities of the teaching and learning process systematically. The conscious effort leads to the preparation of learning materials, the preparation of facilities and teaching aids, the arrangement of learning spaces, realizing situations and conditions of the teaching and learning process, and time management so that learning runs well and curricular goals can be achieved (Dirjen Dikdasmen, 1996).
Classroom management is aimed at activities that create and maintain optimal conditions for the occurrence of student learning processes, such as fostering good relations between students and teachers, reinforcement , assessment , and task management. The objectives of class management are:
- realize classroom situations and conditions, both as a learning environment and as a study group that allows students to develop their abilities to the fullest;
- eliminate various obstacles that can prevent the realization of learning interactions;
- provide and arrange learning facilities and furniture that support and enable students to learn in accordance with the social, emotional and intellectual environment of students in the classroom; and
- fostering and guiding students according to their social, economic, cultural, and individual backgrounds. The ability of teachers to understand the concepts of classroom management and be able to implement them is a determining factor for learning success.
Classroom management emphasizes aspects of the setting of the learning environment that is related to students and goods / facilities. The teacher’s activities can be in the form of conditions and facilities in the classroom that are needed in the learning process including seating, equipment and teaching materials, and the classroom environment.
Professional teachers are teachers who have the ability to manage or design classrooms, which provide a conducive climate for the effective and efficient learning process. If the atmosphere is not conducive, then a teacher must try as optimal as possible to master, arrange to fix, and create a conducive classroom atmosphere, so that the learning process can run optimally to achieve the desired learning goals.
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Principles of Class Management
In class management there are several principles that must be considered as a prerequisite for creating an effective and efficient learning model, namely “Muhaimin, 2002: 137-144”.
- The principle of “Readiness” Readiness
Learning readiness is the maturity and growth of physical, psychological, intelligence, background experience, standardized learning outcomes, motivation, perception and other factors that enable a person to learn.
- Principle of Motivation “Motivation”
Motivation is the driving or pulling force that causes behavior towards a particular goal. Motivation of students will really show interest, have strong attention and curiosity to participate in learning activities, try hard and give sufficient time to carry out these activities and continue to work until these tasks are completed.
- Principle of Attention
Attention is a cognitive strategy that includes four skills that are oriented to a problem, glance at the contents of the problem, focus on relevant aspects and ignore irrelevant stimuli. In the learning process attention is a big factor.
- Principle of Perception
General principles that need to be considered in using perception are:
- The better the perception of something the easier the students learn to remember something.
- In learning, it is necessary to avoid wrong perceptions because this will give students the wrong understanding about what is learned.
- In learning, it is necessary to strive for various learning resources that can approach the real objects so that students get a more accurate perception.
- Principle of Retention
Retention is what is left behind and can be recalled after someone has learned something. Retention makes what is learned can last or stay longer in the cognitive structure and can be recalled if needed. Because of that retention greatly determines the results obtained by students in the learning process.
- Transfer Principle
Transfer is a process where something that has been learned can influence the process of learning something new. Thus the transfer means the association of knowledge that has been learned with knowledge that has just been learned. Knowledge or skills taught at school are always assumed or expected to be used to solve problems experienced in life or in the work to be faced later.
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Problems in Class Management
A teacher in daily activities, will face cases in his class. Cases encountered by teachers in class management include:
- The level of mastery of the material by students in the classroom. For example, the subject matter given to students is too high or difficult, so it cannot be followed by students, so adjustments are needed here so students can participate in learning activities properly. If no adjustments are made, students will not be serious and will always cause noise.
- Facilities needed. For example tools, media, materials, places, costs, etc., will enable students to learn with
- Student condition. For example, students who appear to be lethargic and are not passionate about receiving lessons, this can affect the situation
- Teacher teaching techniques. For example, in providing teaching less exciting class atmosphere and tedious.
Class Management Aspects
The aspects that need to be considered in class management are the nature of the class, the driving force of the class, the class situation, selective action, and creative (Johnson and Bany, 1970). The activities that need to be carried out in class management as aspects of class management, as stated in the Director General of Primary and Secondary Education (2000) are:
- checking student attendance;
- collect the results of student work, examine, and assess the results of the work;
- distribution of materials and tools;
- collect student information, record archival maintenance data;
- deliver subject matter; and
- give an assignment.
Meanwhile the things teachers need to pay attention to, especially new teachers in the first meeting with students in class are:
- when meeting with students, the teacher must: (a) be calm and confident, (b) not show anxiety, sour face, or unsympathetic attitude; (c) greeting and then introducing themselves; and (d) provide a format for students’ personal data or the teacher asks students to write a brief curriculum vitae;
- the teacher gives assignments to students in an orderly and smooth manner;
- arrange student seats in an orderly and orderly manner;
- determine the procedure for speaking and question and answer;
- make a class plan (student seat); and
- act discipline, both towards students and themselves (Dirjen Dikdasmen, 1996: 13).
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- Educational Innovation in Classroom Scope
Class innovation involves the principal’s efforts to create conditions that allow teachers to take creative or innovative actions or efforts. Thus, the principal and teachers need to find or create ways of working or new things that are more in accordance with needs. At least they are expected to be willing and able to modify new things or ways that are better or more effective and efficient. Such conditions need to be created in schools so that education reform can emerge from school residents. Because, this will foster attitudes and creative power of school residents.
The teacher as the spearhead in the implementation of education is a very influential party in the learning process. The teacher’s expertise and authority determine the continuity of the teaching and learning process in the classroom and its effects outside the classroom. The teacher must be good at bringing students to the goal to be achieved. There are several things that can shape the authority of teachers, among others: (1) mastery of the material being taught, (2) teaching methods that are appropriate to the situation and conditions of students, and (3) relationships between individuals, both with students and fellow teachers and other elements involved in the educational process such as the administrator, for example the principal and the administration and the surrounding community, the experience and skills of the teacher himself.
As the main object in education, especially in the teaching and learning process, students hold a very dominant role. Students in the learning process, can determine the success of learning through the use of intelligence, motor power, experience, willingness and commitment that arise in themselves without coercion. This can happen if students are also involved in the process of educational innovation, even if only by introducing them to the goals of the change from planning to implementation, so that what they do is a shared responsibility that must be carried out consequently.
The education curriculum, the more narrow the school curriculum includes teaching programs and tools is a guideline in the implementation of education and teaching in schools. Therefore the school curriculum is considered as an inseparable part in the teaching and learning process in schools, so that in the implementation of educational innovations, the curriculum plays the same role as other elements in education. Without a curriculum and without following the programs in it, educational innovation will not run in accordance with the goals of innovation itself. Therefore, in the renewal of education, the change should be in accordance with changes in curriculum or curriculum changes followed by renewal of education and it is not impossible that the changes of both will go in the same direction.
Facilities, including educational facilities and infrastructure, cannot be ignored in the educational process especially in the teaching and learning process. In the discussion of education, of course, facilities are things that also influence the continuity of innovation to be applied. Without facilities, the implementation of educational innovations will certainly not run well. Facilities, especially teaching and learning facilities, are essential in making educational changes and updates. Therefore, if implementing an educational innovation, facilities need to be considered. For example the availability of school buildings, benches, or desks.
- Social Scope of the Community
Schools in implementing education innovation, there are things that are not directly involved in these changes but can have an impact, both positive and negative, in the implementation of educational renewal. The community indirectly or indirectly, intentionally or indirectly, is involved in education. Because, what they want to do in education actually changes the community for the better, especially the community where the students come from. Without involving the surrounding community, educational innovation will certainly be disrupted, even damaging if they are not notified or involved. Community involvement in educational innovation will instead help innovators and implementers of innovation in implementing educational innovations.
- Class Problems
Class management problems can be grouped into two categories, namely: (1) individual problems; and (2) group problems (Entang and Joni, 1983: 12). Classroom management actions taken by a teacher will be effective if he can correctly identify the nature of the problem at hand. The emergence of individual problems is based on the basic assumption that all individual behavior is an attempt to achieve certain goals, namely the fulfillment of the needs to be accepted by the group and to achieve self-esteem. Dreikurs (2011) argues that if those needs can no longer be fulfilled through reasonable means, then the individual concerned will try to achieve them in other ways, such as acting in a bad way.
Furthermore Johnson and Bany (1970) put forward the characteristics of groups in the class as well as variables, namely:
- Group unity
Group unity plays an important role in influencing members to behave. Unity deals with communication, changes in attitudes and opinions, group standards, and pressure on group disunity or unity. The use of strong dominance can increase unity, but the provision of rules by teachers can lead to riots. Unity can be developed by helping students to realize their relationship with each other as a unifying tool. The unity of class groups is reflected in the solid and compact class organization structure.
- Interaction and communication
Interaction occurs in communication, if several people / members have certain opinions, then communication occurs in groups and continues with interaction, discussing those opinions that are happy accompanied by emotions that strengthen interaction. However, each group will try to maintain group interaction. This needs to be assisted by the teacher so that learning tasks can take place naturally. Teachers need to know the communication needs of their students and give them freedom to speak. Verbal or nonverbal communication, if not resolved, can damage the situation. To help them, the teacher knows their background.
- Group structure
Informal structures in groups can influence formal structures. Some individuals who may be informal structures, if always placed in a high position, this can damage the familiarity of the group. The place of members in the group is very important to be sought to attract him. The position above if needed can be made alternately.
- Group goals
If group goals are determined jointly by students in relation to educational goals, then group members will work more productively in completing their assignments. In other words, students will work well, if it relates to their goals.
Penalties created together for students who violate may be able to minimize the violation, but some children will still not be able to learn well. A good way is for the teacher to diagnose the needs and difficulties of the group before helping them. The measures used to control the class from the worst to the best are: (1) punishment or threat; (2) changing the situation or strategy; (3) dominance or influence; and (4) cooperatives or participation.
- Group climate
Climate is one’s perception of organizational culture. Group climate is the result of interconnected aspects within the group or products of all forces in the group. Group climate is determined by the level of group familiarity as a result of the above aspects. Strong familiarity will control the behavior of its members. Group climate is important in making changes in groups. Besides individual problems and group problems, another thing that is closely related to class management is the school organization.
- Comfortable and Fun Class
Class is a learning park for students. Classes are a place for students to grow and develop their intellectual and emotional potential. Given all that, the class should be managed in such a way that it really is a comfortable and enjoyable learning park. While the requirements for a good class are: (1) neat, clean, healthy, not moist; (2) enough light to illuminate it; (3) sufficient air circulation; (4) furniture is in good condition, sufficient in number and neatly arranged; and (5) the number of students is not more than 40 (Dirjen Dikdasmen, 1996: 17). There are several conditions that need to be pursued so that the class is comfortable and enjoyable, namely: (1) classroom layout; and (2) arranging classroom furniture.
- Classroom layout
Basically the learning system adopted at school is very dependent on the approach or method used. Lecturing, the system used is a classical system; while the experimental method, group discussion, the system used is non-classical. In structuring the classrooms, the classroom can be placed next to the blackboard or next to the teacher’s desk. Additional class cupboards can be placed behind the class. These additional cupboards will be better, if they are made of glass and this will be used to store certificates, vandel, and school literature.
- Arranging class furniture
Class furniture is all equipment that must be available and needed in class. Class furniture includes or can be: (1) blackboards and erasers; (2) table, teacher’s chair; (3) desks, student chairs; (4) classroom cupboards; (5) lesson schedule board; (6) presence board; (7) class picket board; (8) educational calendar; (9) pictures of the President and Vice President and the symbol of Garuda Pancasila; (10) wash basins and washcloths; (11) trash cans; (12) broom sticks, palm broom and chicken feather broom; (13) other pictures / props; and (14) chalk / markers