Activity system. The information currently faced by a student at any level of education far exceeds the sharpest imagination . Neither the institutions nor the students themselves can afford to increase the duration of their studies. The need to find and apply more effective ways, methods of teaching and learning , in which the essentials are taught and that the learning is meaningful, becomes more evident every day .
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- 1 Definitions
- 2 Activities
- 3 System of Activities in youth and adults
- 4 See also
- 5 Sources
The term system appears abundantly in the literature of any branch of contemporary knowledge and in recent years its use in pedagogy has increased . In this context the term is used:
- To designate one of the characteristics of the organization of the proposed activities.
- To designate a specific way of approaching the study(research) of educational objects or phenomena (systemic approach, systemic analysis).
- To designate a theoryabout the organization of objects of pedagogical reality. (General systems theory).
According to the Encarta Encyclopedia dictionary2006 defines a system as: “A set of rules or principles on a matter that are rationally linked to each other and as a set of things that, related to each other, orderly contribute to a certain object”. The Color Dictionary defines a system as: “a set of rules or principles on a matter related to each other, a set of things that, in an orderly manner related to each other, contribute to a certain end. Set of independent elements. Set of linguistic elements in solidarity with each other ”. In the Pedagogical Dictionary it is expressed: system is not a conglomerate of mechanically juxtaposed elements but it presents laws of totality; that is, general qualities inherent in the set, which differ from the individual characteristics of the components that make it up.
In other bibliographic searches related to the concept of system, what was addressed by authors such as: José Clemente Marín Díaz , V. Rodríguez and María Goretty who defined it as “… a whole formed by a set of elements related to each other, was taken into account , constantly influencing each other, which have their own characteristics (physical, social, political, economic, technical, …) that in turn determine the operation of the system in the ends, purposes and objectives that they pursue ”.
The definition given by Carlos Álvarez de Zayas in his book La Pedagogía como Ciencia , states that system is a: “Set of elements whose relationships are of such an order that it makes possible to manifest certain qualities, totalizing properties that are not offered by the mere sum of elements”. It is also expressed in the book Didactics: theory and practice , by Dr. Fátima Addine Fernández, that it is a system “… it is a totality, a configuration of elements that are reciprocally integrated throughout time and space, to achieve a purpose common, a goal, a result ”.
As can be seen in all the sources consulted, the authors agree that it is a system when a close interrelation is established between the components that make up the set, but this does not imply that these components do not maintain and exhibit their particular qualities, on the contrary, these are enriched by the interaction with the rest. The dialectical relationship of the whole and its parts is established in the system.
From the bibliographic search on the term activity, it was found that, according to the Encarta Encyclopedia 2006 Dictionary, the word comes from the Latin activĭtas that etymologically means; “Faculty to act, diligence, efficiency, set of operations or tasks proper to a person or entity,” from which the one set out in the Larousse Dictionary, where it is defined as, “… a set of operations or tasks characteristic of an entity or person, interaction in a field of action “. To the previous criteria, José Clemente Marín Díaz adds the notion of purpose that translates into the objective, when he points out that activity is “… a set of actions, operations or tasks, previously planned, that contribute to the achievement of a certain objective”.
Meanwhile, the Philosophical Dictionary defines activity as: “a concept that characterizes the function of the subject in the process of interaction with the object , is a link between the subject and his surroundings, establishes, regulates and controls the relationship between the subject and the object, is stimulated by need, is oriented towards an objective that satisfies the latter and is carried out through a system of actions ”. In this case, it is alluded to that the link between the subject and the object of reality is established through activity, which in the terms of this research can be translated into the act of taking advantage of the potentialities that computing it provides the subject to get in touch with the culture that has preceded him and at the same time enables him as a teacher to be a promoter and creator of the new.
System of Activities in youth and adults
Experience shows that young people and adults, as an educator, have characteristics that are peculiar and different from that of children in the exercise of the same activity; therefore, not only a methodology is required, but a whole system that, based on philosophical and psychological principles , respond to the needs of the teaching-learning process and the training of adults.
The UNESCO International Committee of Experts on Adult Education , based on the analysis of the social, economic, scientific and technical problems in which humanity lives It has proposed a more current criterion of education that is as follows: Scientific and technological advances; rapidly increasing social, economic and political changes; citizens who acquire greater social and civic responsibilities; the democratization of cultural life and the increase in free time, as a result of scientific development in industry and agriculture; the decline of traditional and old established customs; the mobility of the population from rural to urban areas, from region to region, from country to country, new discoveries as a result of research, impose the urgent need, today more than ever, for a new concept of education. The nature of man indicates that he can continue learning throughout his life.
Scientific evidence shows that they have the capacity to do so. The educational fact is a process that acts on man throughout his life and there are no moments in the various phases of his existencein which you feel free from the influence of the environment. Youth and Adult Education must stimulate the constant concern to live and transcend, stimulate motivations and multiply its cultural, scientific and technical heritage. Therefore, to carry out the actions related to the use and manipulation of new technologies and specifically the computer, it must be borne in mind that the adult person must transform his or her position and personal experience into teaching, also establish various forms of collaboration and therefore in one way or another this teaching activity must consolidate its social character. Supported by LS Vigotsky who states that:
¨… learning is a social activity (…), puts the active, conscious, goal-oriented subject in interaction with other subjects in the center of attention… ¨
It is essential to point out that there have been transformations in Youth and Adult Education aimed at achieving a better quality of learning. These transformations have renewed the work in the subsystem, and at the same time, have raised new questions and defined new challenges.
It must first start from what was expressed by Dr. Doris Castellanos ( 2002 ): that there is a dialectical relationship between education, learning and development in the human being , these are processes that have a relative interdependence and uniqueness of their own, but that are at the same time they integrate into human life, forming a dialectical unit.
Learning is a process that occurs throughout life and that extends to multiple spaces, times and forms. Learning is closely linked with knowing permanently. However, it is not something abstract: it is linked to the life experiences and needs of individuals, to their specific historical-cultural context, “[…] learning involves the transition from the external to the internal – in the words of Vigostky-, from the interpsychological to the intrapsychological- from the subject’s dependence to independence, from external regulation to self-regulation. Ultimately, it involves their cultural development, that is, going through progressive change.