What Is Strata (linguistic)

In linguistics , a stratum or strata (from the Latin stratum , meaning layer) is a language that influences or is influenced by another through contact . A substrate is a language that has less power or influence than another, while a superstructure is a language that has more presence or influence. Substrate and superstructure influence each other, but in different ways. An instruction refers to a language that is in contact with another language of a neighboring population, without therefore having a greater or lesser identifiable influence.

Dynamics edit edit source code ]

These terms refer to the situation in which an intrusive language is established in the territory of another, usually as a result of a migration . The situations in which the superstructure occurs (the local language persists and the intrusive language disappears) or the substrate (the local language disappears and the intrusive language persists) will only be evident after several generations, during which time the intrusive language remains in one diaspora culture . For intrusive language to persist (in the case of the substrate), the immigrant population will need to assume the elite political position or immigrate significantly in relation to the local population. (That is, the intrusion qualifies as an invasion or colonization, an example would be the Latin of the Roman Empire originating the Romance languagesoutside the Italic peninsula, overlapping paleo-Hispanic languages , such as the Lusitanian language ). The case of the superstrat refers to elite population populations that end up adopting the local language (for example the Suebi and Visigoths in the Iberian peninsula, who ended up abandoning their Germanic dialects in favor of the Romanesque).

Examples edit edit source code ]

Region Resulting language Substrate / original language Superstrate Superstructure resulting from
Belarus and Russia Belarusian language and southern Russian dialects Local Baltic languages Old Eastern Slavic languages Slavic expansion
Lebanon Lebanese Arabic Western Aramaic and Phoenician language Classic Arabic Arabs during Islamic expansion
Syria Syrian Arab Western Aramaic
Palestine / Israel Levantine Arab Western Aramaic
Egypt Egyptian Arabic Coptic language and Nubian language
Algeria Algerian Arabic Berber and Punic languages
Libya Libyan Arabic Punic , Coptic and Berber languages
Morocco Moroccan Arabic Berber languages
Sudan Sudanese Arabic Nubian and other African languages
Tunisia Tunisian Arabic Punic and Berber languages
Saudi Arabia Saudi arab Southern Semitic languages , Aramaic western, eastern and Aramaic language Coptic
Yemen Yemeni Arab Southern Semitic languages
Lapland Laponic languages Local ancient European languages Proto-fine languages
Singapore Singapore Mandarin Southern Chinese dialects: Min Nan , Teochew , Cantonese , Hainan Standard Mandarin Singapore government during campaign to speak Mandarin.
England Average English Old English Old French (Oïl languages) Normans during the Norman conquest of England .
Ireland Irish English Irish Early modern English British during colonization in the 16th century
Spain Spanish (Castilian) Paleo-Hispanic languages Vulgar Latin , followed by Sueva , Visigothic and Arabic Romans during the Roman Empire , followed by Germans during the migrations of the barbarian peoples
Portugal Portuguese Paleo-Hispanic languages Galician and Lusitanian languages
France French Gaulish Vulgar Latin , followed by the French language [ 1 ]
Mexico Mexican Spanish Nahuatl and Mayan languages 15th century Castilian Spaniards during the Spanish colonization of 15th century America
Chile Chilean Spanish Mapuche , Quechua and Aymara languages
Paraguay Paraguayan Spanish Guarani language
Peru Peruvian Spanish Quechua
Argentina Spanish rioplatense Italian , French , Lebanese Arabic , Syrian Arabic , Quechua and language Guarani
Jamaica Jamaican English African languages ​​of African slaves transported Early modern English the British during the British Empire
India Indian English various Indian linguistic substrates , especially the Hindi language Modern English
Israel Modern Israeli ( non-Eastern ) standard of the Hebrew language mainly Yiddish ,
and several other European languages
of European Jewish immigrants to Israel , also Jewish-Arabic languages
Biblical Hebrew European Jews at the end of the 19th and 20th century who recovered and re-introduced the Hebrew language.
Austria Austrian German Austro-Bavarian Standard German (Hochdeutsch) Empress Maria Teresa of Austria after adoption
by Gottsched of the Standard German (Hochdeutsch) in the late 18th century
Switzerland German Standard Swiss German German Adoption of standard German (Hochdeutsch)
by the Zurich Bible reforms in 1665 and 1755
Ukraine Ukrainian Russian Ukrainian Russian Dominion by the Russian Empire

 

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