Types of Press Freedom and Limitations

Freedom of the press is one thing that is increasingly difficult to find in Indonesia. How come? The press today is mostly not the press that is voicing the minds of the people anymore, but the press which is a political media for certain parties. What is the real meaning of press freedom?

Definition of Press Freedom

In Wikipedia, press freedom is said to be “the right granted by the constitutional or legal protection relating to the media and published material, such as spreading, printing, and publishing newspapers, books, magazines, or in other material without interference. or censorship from the government “

Freedom of the press is universal and does not apply to just one country. This is stated in Article 19 of the UN Declaration of Human Rights which states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion. This includes freedom to have opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and convey information and ideas through any media regardless of regional boundaries.

Whereas in Indonesia, freedom of the press itself has also been regulated in legislation as below:

  1. Law No. 29 of 2000 Article 14 Paragraphs 1 and 2 concerning Human Rights. (1) “Everyone has the right to communicate and obtain information needed to develop his personal and social environment.” (2) ” Everyone has the right to search, obtain, own, store, process and deliver information using all types of available facilities.”
  2. Article 28 of the 1945 Constitution, ” Freedom of association and assembly, expressing thoughts verbally and in writing and so forth shall be determined by law.”
  3. Article 28 F of the 1945 Constitution“Everyone has the right to communicate and obtain information to develop his personal and social environment, and has the right to seek to obtain, own, store, process, and convey information using all types of available channels.”
  4. Tap MPR No. XVII / MPR / 1998 concerning Human Rights, Chapter VI, Articles 20 and 21, the contents of which are as follows. (20) “Everyone has the right to communicate and obtain information to develop their personal and social environment.” (21) “Everyone has the right to seek, obtain, possess, store, process and deliver information using all available channels.”

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Types of Press Freedom

Based on the notion of press freedom above, it can be concluded that freedom of the press includes several things. Here are some types of press freedom.

Freedom of the press ( freedom of press )

In the Press, Law and Human Rights , Bagir Manan divides freedom of press or freedom of the press into two main categories.

  1. Freedom of the press itself.
  2. The press as a means or forum for public freedom.
  3. Freedom (independence) to form and direct public opinion in the public interest
  4. Freedom (independence) issues opinions and thoughts of the press.

Freedom of the press itself includes:

  • Freedom (freedom) to find, obtain, process and disseminate information.
  • Freedom (independence) to exercise control, and give criticism in the political, social, or economic life.
  • Freedom (independence) to form and direct public opinion in the public interest.
  • Freedom (independence) issues opinions and thoughts of the press.

The press as a means or forum for public freedom

The purpose of the press as a means or forum for public freedom is where the press is free to voice the public’s mind without being hindered by anything. This is because the function of the press is indeed to voice everyone’s thoughts.

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The press is a public forum to obtain information, a forum to convey or exchange opinions and or thoughts, a forum to convey criticism, a forum to channel creativity, and others.

Rights in Press Freedom

With the freedom of the press, many rights can be realized in society, namely:

  1. The right to freedom of expression includes freedom of the press, freedom of thought ( freedom of thought), freedom of opinion, freedom of choice ( freedom of religion ), freedom of art (creating or doing an art), freedom of inquiry ( freedom of research ).
  2. The right to freedom of information which includes the right to obtain, disseminate, process or withhold information and encourage dialogue, establish harmony and progress.
  3. The right to freedom of opinion in which each person is free to give his opinion on a variety of things. With the press, many people can exchange opinions.
  4. The right to freedom of communication where everyone has the right to communicate both verbally, in writing, and through pictures or codes.
  5. The right to control. The press can also play an important role in giving control to the government. Abuses can be monitored by the public through the press.

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Limitation of Press Freedom

Even though the press has freedom, it does not mean that it has no boundaries. There are still many restrictions that must be obeyed in exercising press freedom, as below:

  1. Public order.
  2. National security ( national security), for example state or military secrets.
  3. Still guaranteeing political and social harmony.
  4. The obligation to respect privacy ( privacy).
  5. Criminal provisions, civil provisions, and administrative law, or other legal provisions.

That is a brief explanation of the types of freedom of the press. Thus this short article. Hope it is useful for all of us thanks.

 

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