Tomat (Lycopersicon esculentum)
Tomatoes included in the Solanacea plant or eggplant are characterized by stems and leaves that are downy to coarse. These plants are generally broad-leaved and which are found on a joint stalk (compound). The leaves have a pinned pinion, those that don’t. The flower of the solanaceae is a star or trumpet. The stamen are sticking together or loose in the shape of a long box. Flower crowns are yellow, purple, white, or purplish white. The shape of the fruit is round like a light bulb, oval or long. Toxic fruits contain alkoloids. A rooted plant with many side roots. Solanaceae vegetables include several important genera such as tomatoes , potatoes, eggplant, chili and leeks (leprosy) and throat.
Tomatoes are generally shaped shrubs, except wild tomatoes whose stems are so long that they are spread and are more than a year old. This plant is rooted riding with many and shallow side roots. Tomato stems angular and downy. The flowers are in the form of small trumpets with stamens joined to form a tube. Flower color is generally yellow. Young tomatoes are green and do not taste good (langu). Once old, tomatoes are red and the meat is soft. In the fruit room there are many seeds.
The shape of the fruit is round, flat round and those that are like light bulbs. The fruit is fleshy, contains a lot of water, and is arranged in bunches. The leaves are split with pinnate leaves and arranged in a joint stalk.
Tomatoes are among the most popular fruit vegetables by everyone because they taste good, fresh, and slightly sour. In addition, tomatoes that are old and red are a source of vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin B. The content of vitamin A is higher 2-3 watermelons.
- Division: Spermatofita
- Subdivision: Angiosperms
- Class: Dikotiledon
- Ordo: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus : Lycopersicon
- Species: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (formerly Solanum Iycopersicum L.)
Nutrition Content per 180 grams
|Vit C||34,38 mg|
|Vit A||1121.40 IU|
|White K||14,22 mcg|
|Vit B1 (thiamine)||0,11 mg|
|Vit B 6 (pyridoxine)||0,14 mg|
|Vit B3 (niacin)||1,13 mg|
|Vit B2 (riboflavin)||0,09 mg|
|Vit B5 (as. Pantotenat phosphor)||43,20 mg|
|Year E||0,68 mg|
(Source: Whfoods.org, 2007).
Tomatoes ( Lycopersico esculentum Mill or formerly called solanum lycopersicum ) have various types (subpesies). Some of the well-known sub-species include apple tomatoes, persomat tomatoes, vegetable tomatoes, potato tomatoes, and curly tomatoes.
- Apple tomatoes – ( Solanum lycopersicum pyriforme) bear fruit with a round shape, strong (compact), and a little hard like an apple or pear.
- Perselintomatoes or vegetable tomatoes – ( solanum lycopersicum L commune ) produce flat, soft, irregularly shaped, slightly grooved fruit near the stem. This type of tomato is widely sold in the market.
- Potato tomatoes – ( Solanum lycopersicum L grandifolium) produce large, dense (compact) fruit like apples, only smaller than apple tomatoes, while leaves are bushy.
- Curly tomatoes – ( Solanum lycopersicum L validum)produce a rather oval and hard shape. The leaves are thick and curly like a curly viral disease and dark green.
Tomatoes are made up of many varieties. The varieties of tomato that bear fruit are moneymaker, maascross, extase, bonset and monresist . The major fruit varieties are geraldton simooth skin and indian river. The varieties of tomatoes are only good grown in the highlands.
In addition to these types of tomatoes, there are still other types of tomatoes that are less liked in marketing. The shape of the moon is as big as a marble, namely wild tomatoes ( Solanum cerasifome, L hirsutum and others ) . However, these tomatoes are somewhat resistant to rain and wilting. Ranti tomatoes are red after cooking, while wild tomatoes are black.
Tomatoes can grow in both the lowlands and highlands (mountains). Types of tomatoes are better planted in the lowlands. Meanwhile, apple tomatoes are better planted in the highlands. however, there are variates which include types of apple tomatoes that are suitable for planting in the lowlands and are resistant to withering diseases such as VC.11 (ratna), AV-33 (diamond), diamonds, pearls, and TW 375.
Tomato plants are very sensitive to soils that lack a bit of nutrients, especially nitrogen (limp). Therefore, planting tomatoes must be on loose soil, little containing sand, and many containing organic material (fertile). Clay which contains little sand with a degree of soil acidity (pH) between 5-6 is very preferred by this plant.
Tomato plants are not resistant to rain. Therefore, the best planting time is two months before the rainy season until the end of the rainy season. Planting time can also be done at the beginning of the rainy season. However, plants often fail because there are many leaf and fruit disease attacks, many of which break so that the quality decreases. In the fields or places that can be irrigated or inundated, the best planting time is the beginning of the dry season.
- How to plant
Tomatoes are bred with seeds. Before planting, the tomato seeds are sown first. Soil for nursery is hoeed and given mature and sterile manure. To protect the seedlings, a roof facing east and tilted to the west was as high as one merer. This roof is useful for maintaining humidity, obtaining a fixed temperature, and regulating the amount of incoming sunlight.
Tomato seeds are sown lined up with a distance of 5 cm between the rows. Sowing is done with caution and thinly thin on the nursery soil. For one hectare of land, 300 – 400 tomato seeds are needed. In theory, planting one hectare of land is only needed 150 g of seeds with a sprout of 75%
Tomato seeds will grow after 5 – 7 days. After two weeks of age, the seeds are moved into a plastic bag or banana leaf.
The land to be used is 40 cm deep and made beds with a width of 1.40 – 1.60 cm. On the beds a hole with a distance of 50 – 60cm was made. The distance between the rows of holes 70-80 cm so that each bed consists of two rows of holes. Each hole is given manure as much as 0.5-1kg or 20 tons / ha. On the land a drainage canal (ditch) is made between beds with a width of 20 cm. These trenches are very important for drainage and prevent attacks of wilting.
After one month of age, about four leaves, tomato seedlings are transferred to the planting hole that has been available in the garden. Each hole is planted with a healthy, strong, and fertile plant stem. If necessary, the plant is covered with banana leaves or midrib. Cover this to prevent the blazing sun or raindrops that might fall. After 3-4 days the lid is opened.
Tomato plants that were 1.5 months old were given artificial fertilizers in the form of a mixture of urea, TSP, and KCL at a ratio of 2: 3: 1 as much as 12 g per plant. This fertilizer is placed in a groove that surrounds the stem of the plant, approximately 5 cm from the plant. This groove is then covered with soil, applying this artificial fertilizer once again after 2-3 weeks later. Thus, for each hectare of the plant, 200 kg urea, 300 kgTSP, and 100 kg KCL are needed in the barren land, urea fertilizer is given up to 300 kg / ha. Provision of artificial fertilizer should be at the same time as weeding.
At the age of 1.5 months tomatoes side branches are trimmed until the remaining 1-2 main branches of each plant. Shoots that grow on the armpits of leaves and little flowering (wild shoots) must be removed. These shoots can reduce fruit yields.
- Plant maintenance
Tomato plants need special (intensive) care, especially in the control of pest and disease attacks. However, many people commercially cultivate tomatoes for a profit. The way to care for tomatoes is to clean grass or weeds, regulate water availability, isolate bamboo from bamboo and eradicate pests and invading diseases.
For eradication of pests and diseases it is important to first identify the types of pests and their diseases. The types of tomato mites are fruit caterpillars (Heliothis sp) and ground worms (agrotis sp). Grasshopper was able to break young plants, worms were rinsed with 10 G Rhocap spray, 0.1% around the crop, and fruit worms with Decis 2.5 EC 0.2%.
Another pest that can harm tomato plants is worms. The dangerous worm is the root canal nematode (Meloidgyne sp). This nematode only occurs in very acidic soils (pH 4 -5). This pest causes the root of tomato plants to grow, the plants are weak, and production declines.
In addition to pests, there are other dangers that can damage tomato plants, namely diseases. Various types of diseases that cause harm to tomato plants are fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
Diseases caused by fungi are damping off, leaf rot and wilting. Rhizoctonia sp, and Pythium sp can cause damping off . This disease often threatens plants in peace. This disease attack can be prevented by spraying Dithane M-45 0.2% before the disease appears.
Phytopthora fungus can cause leaf rot or smallpox. Leaves and fruit from plants that have the disease stained with black like smallpox, irregular and eventually become dry or rotten. This disease can be eradicated with Benlate 0.1-0.3%, Antracol, or Dithane M-45 0.20%. If eradication is late, this disease can ruin the harvest.
The type of fungus Fusarium oxysporum can cause wilt or pineapple. This disease attacks the roots so it is difficult to eradicate. In addition, diseases can spread through the soil, water and seeds. This wilted panyakit can also be caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum. The treatment has not yet been found. This disease can spread through soil, water and seeds.
Other diseases that attack tomatoes can also be caused by viruses. Types of viruses in the form of curly viruses and Tobacco Masik Virus (TMV) or Blorok, which until now has not been eradicated. This disease is caused by a vector insect in the form of Myzus persiae aphids.
Types of diseases that attack tomato plants are spread / spread quickly. The emergence of damping off and wilt disease occurs due to the use of immature manure.
The spread of disease can be prevented by means of plants that are attacked by disease immediately revoked and burned. Other precautions are crop rotation, plant hygiene is maintained, and the use of wilt-resistant variates such as rat and diamond variates. In addition, can also be used tomato seedlings connection (enten). Tomato seedlings are spliced above the stem of the throat or telat eggplant to prevent attacks of root diseases (such as wilting fungi and bacterial wilting). The reason for this connection is because the throat and eggplant are resistant to the disease.
The first fruit can be harvested after the plant is two months old. If the fruit is harvested too late, that is too ripe or old, many fruits fall and are easily damaged during transportation.
Superior and healthy plants can produce 10-25 tons of tomatoes / ha. Tomato production in Indonesia is around 25,000 tons with an area of around 4000ha. Tomato production has been widely traded. Domestic tomatoes (North Sumatra and West Java) have entered foreign markets such as Malaysia and Singapore. Tomatoes of apple and gondol (rome) are tomatoes that are loved by foreign consumers.
Benefits of Tomatoes
Tomatoes are good for hemorrhoid sufferers. Tomato salad, tomato water and sugar, can be given to children, infants and people who are suffering from illness. However, the tomato is recommended for people who suffer from stomachaches. In addition, tomato water can smooth the skin, especially the face, so it is good for beauty treatments.
Tomatoes can also be used as a vegetable seasoning, tomato sauce, juice and dodol. Besides being eaten raw, tomatoes can be used as a salad in fried rice and noodles.
In addition to the benefits above, here are some health benefits of tomatoes:
- Reducing fat levels that cause obesity
- Muscle formation
- Prevent cancer
- Antidote to free radicals
- Keep teeth and bones strong and healthy
- Control cholesterol causes of hypertension (high blood pressure)