Sharia marketing or sharia marketing is a strategic business discipline that directs the process of creating, offering, and changing the value of an initiator to stakeholders, which in the whole process is in accordance with the agreements and principles of muamalah (business) in Islam. This means that in Islamic marketing, the entire process of the creation process, the bidding process, and the process of changing values (values) may not have things that are contrary to the contract and the principles of Islamic muamalah. As long as this can be guaranteed, and deviations in Islamic principles do not occur in an interaction or in a business process, then any form of transaction in marketing can be allowed (Hermawan, M. Syakir, 2006: 26-27).
Sharia Marketing Characteristics
There are four characteristics of sharia marketing that can be a guide for marketers, namely (Hermawan, M. Syakir, 2006: 28-42):
- Theistic (rabbaniyah) One of the characteristics of sharia marketing that is not possessed in conventional marketing that is known so far is its religious nature (diniyyah). This condition is created from an awareness of religious values, which are considered important and color marketing activities so as not to fall into actions that can harm others. The soul of a sharia marketer believes that this theistic or divine Shari’a law is the fairest, most perfect, most in harmony with all forms of goodness, most able to prevent all forms of damage, most capable of realizing truth, destroying evil, and spreading welfare.
- Ethical (akhlaqiyyah) Other features of sharia marketing aside from theism (rabbaniyyah), as well as sharia marketing strongly emphasizes moral issues (morals, ethics) in all aspects of its activities. This ethical nature is actually a derivative of the theistic nature (rabbaniyyah) above. Thus, sharia marketing is a marketing concept that prioritizes moral and ethical values, no matter what the religion. Because moral and ethical values are universal values, which are taught by all religions.
- Realistic (al-waqi’yyah) Sharia marketing is not an exclusive, fanatical, anti-modernity, and rigid concept. Syariah marketing is a flexible marketing concept, as is the breadth and flexibility of Islamic sharia that underlies it. Sharia marketers does not mean that marketers must look Arab-style and forbid a tie because it is considered a symbol of western society, for example. Sharia marketers are professional marketers with a clean, neat, and understated appearance, whatever the style or style of clothing they wear. They work professionally and prioritize religious values, godliness, moral aspects, and honesty in all of their marketing activities.
- Humanistic (al-insaniyyah) Another feature of sharia marketing is its universal humanistic nature. Humanistic understanding (al-insaniyyah) is that sharia is created for humans so that their degrees are elevated, their human nature is maintained and maintained, and their animal attributes can be restrained by Sharia guidelines. By having, the humanistic value of the Sharia marketer becomes a controlled, balanced human being (tawazun), not a greedy human being, who justifies any means to gain the maximum profit. Not be a human being who can be happy above the suffering of others or humans whose hearts are dry with social care.
Sharia Marketing Principles
In the book by Hermawan Kertajaya and Sakir Sula said that to conceptualize a sharia marketing must know about the principles of sharia marketing. According to them there are 17 principles of sharia marketing, namely (Hermawan, M. Syakir, 2006: 151-194):
1) Information Technology Allows Us to be Transparent (Change)
Change is something that will definitely happen. Therefore, changes need to be addressed carefully. The power of change consists of five elements: technological change, legal political change, socio-cultural change, economic change, and market change. In this case more emphasis on the impact of technological change. The root of all changes – whether social, political or economic changes – is due to continuous innovation in technology. With the very rapid development of technology must be utilized by Islamic markers to sustain the performance of the markers themselves. The markers will certainly be facilitated in serving the community with technological developments.
2) Be Respectful to Your Competitors (Competitors)
In carrying out sharia marketing, companies must pay attention to the way they are facing dynamic business competition. So when business competition is increasingly fierce and sometimes dirty, companies must have the moral strength to not be affected by such business games. Sharia markers must adhere to Islamic principles in marketing activities. In the face of competition, sharia markers are also required to compete fairly and not to use dirty methods. Sharia markers must also respect their competitors because basically all humans work to earn a living to meet their daily needs.
3) The Emergence of Global Customers Paradox (Customer)
In the era of globalization as it is now, people live their lives paradoxically. This paradox requires us to focus on what is most important in our daily activities. For religious people, globalization brings many benefits and opportunities, therefore we must learn from one another without leaving our true selves. In this age of globalization, sharia markers must adapt quickly to the environment. Because in this era of globalization new cultures emerge because of the influence of globalization.
4) Develop A Spiritual-Based Organization (Company)
The Body Shop, which was founded by Anita Roddick, a cosmetics company that was chosen as a Company if the Year in 1987, is a successful company thanks to the values and basic principles adopted by the company. The Body Shop has the principle of honesty, which is demonstrated by providing appropriate value to customers of the products produced. What Anita Roddick is doing is basically the application of spiritual values in the company. By implementing a spiritual-based organization, they always convey messages to their subordinates to make the world a better place by promoting humility and honesty, even when they have become successful entrepreneurs.
Like Anita Roddick’s successful company by implementing the spiritual principles of Islamic banks or BMT must apply the spiritual principles of each element of the company including the markers. So that the markerter works wholeheartedly to achieve ultimate happiness.
5) View Market Universally (Segmentation)
Segmentation is the art of identifying and exploiting opportunities that arise in the market. Segmentation enables companies to focus more on allocating resources. With creative ways of dividing the market into segments, companies can determine where they have to provide the best service and where they have the greatest competitive advantage.
6) Target Customer’s Heart and Soul (Targeting)
Targeting is a strategy to allocate company resources effectively, because the available resources are limited. By determining the target to be targeted, our efforts will be more directed. Without targeting, the employees will work as they wish, even though they have great potential to obtain maximum results. Therefore important targeting in the company to realize the potential of the employees themselves.
7) Build A Belief System (Positioning)
Positioning is a strategy to win positions in the minds of consumers, so this strategy concerns how to build trust, confidence, and competence for customers. And for sharia-based companies, building trust means showing commitment that the sharia company offers something more than non-sharia companies.
8) Differ Yourself with A Good Package of Content and Context (Differentiation)
Differentiation is defined as the act of designing a set of meaningful differences in a company’s offer. Differentiation can be in the form of content (dimensions of differentiation that refer to the value offered to customers), and context (dimensions that refer to the way you offer products).
9) Be Honest with Your 4 Ps (Marketing-Mix)
Marketing-mix whose elements are product, price, place, and promotion (4P). Product and price are components of offers, while place and promotion are components of access. For sharia companies, for the offer component, products and prices must be based on the values of honesty and fairness; in accordance with sharia principles. The access component is very influential on how the business of a company sells products and prices. Promotion for companies based on sharia must reflect in real terms what is offered from the company’s products.
10) Practice A Relationship-Based Selling (Selling)
Selling referred to here is how to maximize sales activities so as to create a win-win situation for the seller and buyer. In selling, the company not only conveys the features of the products and services offered, but also the advantages and even solutions of those products and services.
11) Use A Spiritual Brand Character (Brand)
In sharia view, a good brand is one that has a strong character. And for companies or products that implement sharia marketing, a brand must also reflect characters that do not conflict with sharia principles or spiritual values. Some of the characters that can be built to demonstrate this spiritual value can be described by the values of honesty, justice, partnership, togetherness, openness, and universality.
12) Service Should Have the Ability to Transfer (Service)
To become a large and sustainable company, sharia-based marketing companies must pay attention to the services offered to maintain stakeholder satisfaction. The intended stakeholders are not just consumers but also shareholders, the government, and the employees themselves.
13) Practice A Reliable Business Process (Process)
The process reflects the level of quality, cost, and delivery which is often abbreviated as QCD. Process in the context of quality is how to create a process that has more value for consumers. The process in the context of cost is how to create an efficient process that does not require a lot of cost, but guaranteed quality. While the process in the context of delivery is how the process of delivery or delivery of products or services offered by the company to consumers.
14) Create A Balanced value to Your Stakeholders (Scorecard)
The principle in sharia marketing is to create value for its stakeholders. The three main stakeholders of a company are customers, employees, and shareholders. The three stakeholders are very important, because they are people who are very instrumental in running a business. In maintaining this balance, companies must be able to create superior value for the three main stakeholders with the same weight measurements.
15) Create A Noble Cause (Inspiration)
Inspiration is about dreams to be achieved that will guide the company along its journey to realize the company’s goals. So, in a sharia-based marketing company, determining the vision and mission can not be separated from the meaning of sharia itself, and the ultimate goal to be achieved. This final goal must be noble, more than just financial benefits. 16) Develop An Ethical Corporate Culture (Culture)
Corporate culture describes the identity of the company. This is reflected in the values shared by each individual in the company and their behavior when carrying out business processes. A healthy company culture is a culture that is expressed by every employee with an open heart and in accordance with ethical values. The following are some of the basic cultures in a sharia-based company: a) Cultivating greetings b) Be generous, be friendly, and serve. c) Sharia fashion style. d) Clean work environment.
17) Measurement Must Be Clear and Transparents (Institution)
The last principle is how to build an organization / institution in accordance with sharia principles. In sharia companies must have a transparent feedback system. This feedback system examines the satisfaction of meeting the needs of the three main steak-holders. Transparency means that the three main steak-holders must get as clear and honest information as possible from the company.