The methods for cooking meats may be divided into two general classes — ”quick methods,” as broiling, pan- broiling, roasting; ”slow methods,” as stewing, braising, pot-roasting. “Quick methods” should be used only for tender meats: exception is made to this general rule when tough meat is finely chopped to break up the connective tissue, then cooked as tender meat. When the cooking of tough meat is to be carried on “below boiling point,” the temperature should be regulated so that the liquid around the meat does not show the break- ing of bubbles on its surface. The reason for this is that when meat is cooked by boiling, the connective tissue may be so softened the meat falls apart, but at the same time the protein is hardened and made difficult of digestion. Better results in cooking are obtained if meat is fairly thick, e.g., steaks and roasts. Meat should be taken from the paper as soon as received. Place it on an earthenware or granite dish; cover; keep in cool place.
PAN-BROILED STEAK. 1. Wipe meat with a damp cloth. 2. Trim off superfluous fat. 3. Heat frying-pan; grease sHghtly with piece of fat on the end of a fork. 4. When pan is very hot, put in the meat. 5. Sear on both sides; reduce heat. 6. Turn every 2 mins. until cooked. 7. Season with salt and pepper when partly cooked. 8. As meat is cooking, pour off fat that collects in pan. 9. Serve with Brown Gravy, Mushroom Sauce or Lemon Butter. Time- Steak, 1 inch thick, rare, cook 5 to 7 mins. Steak, 1 inch thick, medium, cook 6 to 8 mins. Steak, 1 inch thick, well done, cook 8 to 10 mins.
BROILED STEAK. 1. Wipe meat; trim off extra fat. 2. Heat a broiler: rub over with fat. 3. Place meat in broiler; broil over glowing coals or in the broiling oven of a gas or electric range. 4. Sear meat on both sides, then reduce heat; turn every 2 minutes. 5. Season when partly cooked. Time — Same as for pan-broiling. ROAST BEEF. 1. Weigh meat; wipe with damp cloth. 2. Place on rack in roasting pan, skin side down. 3. Dredge with flour. 4. Place pieces of fat in pan around the meat. 5. Place in hot oven to sear, then reduce the heat. 6. Baste meat every 10 minutes with fat in the pan. 7. Season with salt and pepper when half cooked. 8. Turn with skin side upffor final browning. Time — For roasts up to 8 lbs., allow 20 minutes to the pound; for roasts more than 8 lbs., allow 25 minutes to the pound.
Gravy for Roast Beef. 1. For 1 c. gravy leave 2 tb. fat in the pan. 2. Add 3 tb. flour; stir together over heat until brown. 3. Add 1 c. boiling water or stock, stirring rapidly. 4. Cook until thick and smooth. 5. Season with salt and pepper. 6. Strain. Note. — 1 T. chopped onion may be browned in the fat before adding flour. FILLET OF BEEF. 23^ to 3 lbs. of beef tenderloin. lb. larding pork. 1 small onion. 1 carrot. 1 stalk celery, or 1 T. dried celery leaves. 4 cloves. 2 bay leaves. 1. Wipe and trim the fillet. 2. Cut pork into strips 3" long, wide, Ys" thick. 3. Chill strips until firm, then lard upper side of fillet. 4. Slice the vegetables; place vegetables, seasonings and trimmings from meat in baking pan. 5. Place fillet on these; dot over with pieces of butter. 6. Add 1 T. salt dissolved in }/2 c. boiling water. 7. Roast 15 mins. to 1 lb. and 15 mins. extra. 8. Serve with Brown Mushroom Sauce. POT ROAST OF BEEF. This method is suitable for tough roasts, such as rump, chuck, round. 1. Weigh meat; wipe with damp cloth. 2. Sear and brown in hot, greased frying-pan or kettle. 3. Place in deep kettle on a trivet. 4. Surround with 1 c. boiling water and 1 c. cubed vegetables — carrot, celery, turnip and a little onion. 5. Cover tightly; cook below boiling point until the meat is tender. 6. Add hot water as needed; season when partly cooked.
Place on platter; arrange , vegetables around roast; serve with Brown Gravy. Time — Cook 30 to 40 minutes to the pound and 30 minutes extra. The length of time required depends upon the toughness of the meat. 1. Prepare the meat for cooking; sear as for pot-roast. 2. Place on a bed of cubed vegetables (carrots, turnip, celery and onion) in a baking pan. 3. Add 1 c. boiling water. 4. Cover tightly; cook in a moderate oven until tender. 5. Season when partly cooked. 6. Uncover near the end of the cooking, to brown. Time — as for pot-roasts. SWISS STEAK. 2 lb. round steak, 1" to l^^" thick. 1/3 c. flour. 1 T. salt. i/s T. pepper. 2 tb. dripping. 1 slice onion. 2 0. boiling water, or 1 c. water and 1 c. strained tomatoes. 1. Wipe meat; place on board. 2. Dredge with mixed flour and seasonings. 3. Pound flour into meat, using wooden potato masher or edge of heavy plate. 4. Heat frying pan very hot; put in fat. 5. Brown meat on each side. 6. Add onion, boiling water and tomato. 7. Cover tightly: cook below boiling point 2 hours. Note. — Meat may be cooked in this way in a casserole in oven. Vegetables, as green peppers and carrots, may be added. HAMBURG STEAK.