Roman Civilization and the Roman Empire

Rome was founded in 753 BC in the “Paso del Tiber” trade passage by the Romulo and Remo brothers, at the beginning of this Roman civilization, it was a small community that based its economy on agriculture.

When Rome was founded, the brothers stripped each other, that’s when Remo died and Romulus consecrated himself as king. After 200 years, Rome manages to free itself from the Etruscans

Stages of Roman Civilization

  1. Monarchy(from the 8th century BC to the 6th century BC): the powers that are exercised during this period are the Roman and Etruscan kings, at this stage a great Etruscan influence persists.
  2. Republic(from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD): at this time great conquests and struggles begin, the Romans begin their expansion, at this stage the famous Punic wars develop, a series of wars that took place between Rome and Carthage, thus contributing to the expansion of Rome.

Before the death of Julio Cesar, the power is won by his nephew Octavio in a battle with Marco Antonio, at that time the empire is given way.

  1. Empire(from the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD): This stage is when Rome becomes a powerful and refined metropolis.

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Roman empire

It is characterized by having an autocratic form of government, during the empire Rome continued to spread from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Red Sea, the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf.

At the beginning of the empire, Augustus came to power forming a new structure of government, where the emperor becomes a political chief, military chief and pontiff.

After the death of Augustus and after the mandate of Trajan and Hadrian, Theodosius divided the Roman empire into two parts for each of his children: east and west; in this way the empire begins to lose power and territory until reaching the year 476 where the empire is officially defeated.

Roman Economic Activity

Agriculture was the basic and main activity of the Roman economy, its agriculture was based on the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, cereals, vines and olive trees, built reservoirs and irrigation ditches, plowed with an iron fence.

Handicraft production was also part of its economy, they were producing fabrics, perfumeries, jewelry stores, leather workshops, glass, blacksmithing, bakeries.

Religion of the Roman Civilization

The Romans were polytheists so they assimilated numerous foreign gods and religions, they had two cults: private that were domestic, in the Roman houses there was a small sanctuary known as “Lararium”; and the public cults that were those related to the State.

Some of their religious rites, consisted of performing prophecies while watching the flight of the birds or when sacrificing an animal, had the belief that this type of rites towards the gods to protect and care for them.

The main gods were:

  1. Lares: protective gods of families, houses and fields.
    2. Manes: protective gods of ancestors.
    3. Penates: protective gods of food and domestic fire.

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