Robotic surgery . Technique in which a surgeon performs surgery using a computer that remotely controls very small instruments attached to a robot.
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- 1 Story
- 2 Description
- 3 Advantages
- 1 Other advantages
- 4 Risks
- 5 Sources
More recently, minimally invasive surgery has incorporated a new technology called Robotic Surgery. The term Robot was first used by K. Capek (Czech writer), in a science fiction story in 1921 , who called a metal android designed by man for his service ROBOT. The introduction of computer-assisted surgery, or robotic surgery, has made it possible to facilitate surgery and perform more complex procedures, bringing minimally invasive techniques closer to a greater number of surgeons.
Robotic surgery began to develop in the early 1990s in the United States with the joint work of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and private entrepreneurs who formed a company called RAMS (Robot Assisted Micro Surgery) one.
The objective of this company was to develop a robot with sufficient skill to perform remote and microsurgical procedures, thus giving rise to the term Tele-surgery. On the other hand, they also set out to improve, using robotic clamps, the movements of the human hand. In this way, surgery would be made easier and allow complex operations to be performed in a minimally invasive way.
In 1994 , RAMS created the first robotic arm 2.5 cm in diameter by 25 cm long, with 6 degrees of movement in space. The following year, he also developed a work station with two robotic arms. In parallel, another company, called Intuitive, developed the da Vinci Surgical System, which was the first robot to obtain approval from the North American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients. Thus the first cholecystectomy was performed with robotic assistance remotely in March of 1997 .
This procedure is done under general anesthesia (you are asleep and pain-free). The surgeon sits at a nearby computer station and directs the movements of a robot . Small instruments are attached to the arms of the robot.
These instruments are first inserted into the body by the surgeon through small surgical incisions. Under the direction of the surgeon, the robot matches the movements of the doctor’s hand to carry out the procedure using the tiny instruments.
A thin tube with a camera attached to its end (endoscope) allows the surgeon to view highly magnified three-dimensional images of the body on a real-time monitor.
Robotic-assisted laparoscopy can sometimes allow a surgeon to perform a less invasive procedure that was once only possible with the most traumatic open surgery. Once placed in the abdomen, a robotic arm is easier for the surgeon to use than instruments in endoscopic surgery.
The robot reduces the surgeon’s movements (for example, moving 1/2 inch or 13 mm for every inch that the surgeon moves), which decreases some of the tremors and hand movements that might otherwise do the surgery less accurate. Similarly, robotic instruments can reach hard-to-reach areas of the body more easily through smaller surgical incisions compared to traditional open and laparoscopic surgery.
During robotic surgery, the surgeon can more easily see the area to be operated on. It is also in a much more comfortable position and can move more naturally than during an endoscopy. However, robotic surgery may take longer to perform, due to the amount of time it takes to prepare the robot. Also, using the robot is expensive and may not be available in many hospitals.
- Faster recovery
- Less pain and bleeding
- Less risk of infection
- Shorter hospitalization
- Smaller scars
The risks of any anesthesia are:
- Drug reactions
- Respiratory problems
The risks of any surgery are: