Refractive LASIK surgery . The technique (acronym in English for “Laser in situ Keratomileusis”) is currently the most widely used for its safety and efficacy. It consists of the modification of the shape of the cornea ( Keratomileúsis : from the Greek, kerato: cornea , and mileúsis: to sculpt) by applying the Excimer laser inside it. Previously, a thin layer of corneal tissue has been lifted, which is subsequently repositioned and adheres without the need for stitches.
The correction of the refractive defect is carried out in this way, with minimal discomfort for the patient and a very fast recovery.
The anesthesia for this surgical technique is topical (with eye drops ) and postoperative ocular bandage is not necessary. The precision and safety of the LASIK technique make it the surgical procedure of choice for most refractive defects. Currently, this technique is performed using IntraLase technology .
In some cases in which surgery with the LASIK technique is not indicated, the solution to the refractive problem can be made using other techniques, such as phakic intraocular lenses (which are placed without removing the lens) or pseudophakic lenses (which are implanted to replace the crystalline).
On those occasions when the Excimer laser cannot eliminate all the refractive defect, such as in high myopia (above 10 diopters), high hyperopia (above 5 diopters), and some astigmatisms, it is possible to correct it implanting intraocular lenses. Also in cases where the Excimer laser is contraindicated, such as in keratoconus or in corneas with decreased thickness, dioptres can be corrected using intraocular lenses.
Particularities of the technique
Sometimes to fully correct the refractive defect and thus improve the patient’s visual acuity, it is necessary to combine two techniques, such as LASIK and the implantation of intraocular lenses. The choice of one technique or another will depend on the surgeon’s criteria and the characteristics of the patient (number of diopters, eye conditions, and age). Today, due to technological advances and the extensive experience of ophthalmologists and their equipment, there is a solution for most refractive defects. Intraocular lens surgery is also performed on an outpatient basis, that is, without admission, anesthesia is with drops and without injections, and vision recovery begins immediately after the intervention.