Economic importance: the tomato is the most widespread vegetable in the world and the one with the highest economic value. Its demand continually increases and with it its cultivation, production and trade. The annual increase in production in recent years is mainly due to the increase in yield and to a lesser extent to the increase in cultivated area. Fresh tomato is mainly consumed in salads, cooked or fried. On a much smaller scale it is used as a pickle
[ hide ]
- 1 Plant morphology
- 2 Botanical Characteristics
- 3 Edaphoclimatic requirements
- 4 Plagues
- 5 Diseases
- 6 Industry
- 7 Source
The plant has a pivoting root with profuse hair of fine roots in the cultivation system. It is a herb that can develop in a creeping, semi-erect or erect way Taxonomy and nomenclature: Kingdom: Plantae Subbrein: Tracheobiont Division: Spermatophyta Subdivision: Magnoliophytina Class: Magnoliatae Order: Solanales Family: Solanaun Species: (Solanum Lycopersicon) Variety: 3019
Root system: It consists of a main root (which can reach more than 120 cm in length), secondary roots and adventitious roots. Route B – Apoplastic route Main stem: It consists of an axis with a thickness ranging from 2-4 cm at its base, on which leaves, stems are developing secondary (sypoidal branching) and inflorescences.} Route A – Simplistic route }The passage of water has two routes: Leaves: Compound and uneven, with petiolate leaflets, lobed and with a jagged edge, 7 to 9 in number and covered with glandular hairs. Clusters: It is cymosic, with a main axis formed by branches of different types, each of which ends in flower. Flower: It is perfect, regular and hypogynous and consists of 5 or more sepals, with the same number of yellow petals. Fruit: It is in bi or plurilocular berry that can reach a weight that ranges from a few milligrams to 600 grams. It is made up of the pericarp, the placental tissue and the seeds. Seeds: They are of small size slightly elongated of the thread, covered with villi, of a grayish yellow color, with a weight of 2.5 to 3.3 g. The germination capacity is maintained for up to 5-6 years if the conservation conditions are favorable. Pollination: Pollen is carried by the wind from the anther to the stigma where the egg will fertilize. Since the plant is hermaphrodite and this process occurs directly, it is called autogamy. Fertilization: The pollen grain is a structure that contains a vegetative nucleus followed by the two spermatic nuclei, When the end reaches the micropyle of the embryo sac, the vegetative nucleus is worn out and in moments the spermatic nucleus divides by mitosis, giving two spermatic nuclei and completing the male gametophyte. Type of reproduction: The reproduction that takes place in this crop is sexual.
Temperature: The optimum development temperature ranges between 20 and 30ºC during the day and between 1 and 17ºC during the night. Humidity: The optimal relative humidity ranges between 60% and 80%. Luminosity: Low luminosity values can have a negative impact on the processes of flowering, fertilization as well as the vegetative development of the plant. Soil: The tomato plant is not very demanding in terms of soils, except for drainage, although it prefers loose soils with siliceous-clay texture and rich in organic matter. Carbonic fertilization: The contribution of CO2 allows to compensate the consumption of the plants and guarantees the maintenance of a concentration above the average in the atmosphere of the greenhouse.
- Nematodes: among the most important are: – Meloydogyne incognita – Helycotylenchus sp. – Trichodorus sp. – Criconemoides sp. – Pratylenchus sp. II. Insects: – Jogoto or blind hen Philophaga sp (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) – Cut worms Agrotis spp ,. – Spodoptera spp (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) – Tomato worm Manduca secta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) – Fruit worm Heliothis spp (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) – Pinworm Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsm) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) – Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae)
– Maya or bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) – Late blight blackout (Phitophthora infestans) – Anthracnose (Colletotrichum phomoides) – Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria) – Bacterial stalk or hollow stalk (Erwinia carotovora) – Stalk disease (Rhizo) – Alternaria or early blight (Alternaria solani)
Currently, tomato for industrial use is imported almost entirely, although there is concern in the sector to produce the raw material in the country. Among the products developed in the country are: tomato sauce, Chunky sauce, pink slasa and pizza or taco sauce