Pipeline. Duct that fulfills the function of transporting water or other fluids . It is made with various types of materials.
It is possible to transport materials that, although they are not a fluid, are suitable for systems such as: concrete , cement , cereals , encapsulated documents, among others.
When the liquid transported is petroleum , the specific name of pipeline is used . When the transported fluid is gas , the specific name of “gas pipeline” is used
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- 1 Manufacture
- 2 Materials
- 1 Domestic use
- 1.1 Water
- 1.2 Drains
- 1.3 Gas
- 1.4 Heating
- 2 Industrial use
- 2.1 Energy
- 2.2 Petrochemical
- 3 Source
- 1 Domestic use
There are three methods of pipe manufacturing.
- Seamless (seamless). The pipe is formed from a cylindrical ingot which is heated in an oven before extrusion. In extrusion, it is passed through a cylindrical die and the hole is subsequently made using a penetrator. Seamless pipe is best for pressure containment thanks to its homogeneity in all directions. It is also the most common form of manufacturing and therefore the most commercial.
- With longitudinal seam. It starts from a sheet of metal which is folded giving the shape to the pipe. The weld that joins the ends of the bent sheet metal closes the cylinder. Therefore it is a straight weld that follows a whole generatrix. By varying the spacing between the rollers, different curves are obtained and thus different pipe diameters. This weld will be the weakest part of the pipe and will mark the maximum allowable stress.
- Helical (or spiral) welding. The methodology is the same as the previous point with the exception that the weld is not straight but runs through the pipe following the pipe as if it were threaded.
The pipes are built in various materials based on technical and economic considerations. “Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester” (GRP), cast iron, steel , brass , copper , lead , concrete , polypropylene , PVC are usually used . Currently PVC is prohibited in some countries or its application has been limited as it is considered to cause polluting effects for humans and the environment.
Currently, the most common materials with which pipes for water conduction are manufactured are: GRP, copper , PVC, polypropylene, polyethylene and steel pipes .
The most common materials for the evacuation of sewage are: GRP pipes, cast iron, PVC, concrete or fiber cement . The new materials that are replacing the traditional ones are GRP pipes (Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester), HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) and PP (Polypropylene).
Usually copper or steel (ductile or laminar according pressures applied), depending on the type of installation, even if they are of a metallic material needed to make a connection to the network ground .Also are beginning to make GRP , Fiberglass Reinforced Polyethylene. In the case of conduction pipes with less demanding thermal and mechanical requirements. They also withstand high pressures
The copper is the material used in the new facility, while in older facilities is very common to find pipes of iron . In buried networks, pre-insulated pipe is used .
In the transport of high-energy steam . Steam with temperatures up to 580 ºC and pressures up to 180 bar, steel alloyed with chromium and molybdenum is used .
For large water flows (cooling), use fiberglass reinforced polyester ( GRP -up to DN3200), ductile cast iron (up to 2m in diameter) or carbon steel. . In the case of the latter, the pipe is manufactured from bent sheet metal which is subsequently welded (seam pipe).
In the field of hydraulic energy production they are called forced pipe .
Given the variety of products transported, there are very different materials to meet the needs of corrosion, temperature and pressure. Materials such as GRP, Monel or Inconel can be reviewed for highly corrosive products.