Phonology is the field of linguistics which investigate the sounds of the language according to function. Phonology term comes from the combination of two Greek words “Phone” which means sounds and “logos” which means level. In this subject we normally study the sound system of language, ie, speech sounds, syllables, stress, intonation
There are three aspects of speech sounds, phonetics:
- The acoustics of speech. It studies the physical signs of speech.
- Physiology of speech. It studies the biological signs of speech, ie, the work done by man in the pronunciation (articulation) or the perception of speech sounds.
- Phonology. It studies the sounds of speech as a means of communication, ie, function or role of the sounds used in the language.
It is often separated as a separate discipline from phonetics.
The acoustics of speech sounds
Speech sounds – a fluctuation of air, caused by the speech organs. Sounds are divided into tones (musical sounds) and noise (non-musical sounds).
Tone – a periodic (rhythmic) vibration of the vocal cords.
Noises – non-periodic (spasmodic) vibrations of the sounding body such as the lips.
Vowels consist of tones, ie voting in the absence of obstacles, and the consonants of the noise (or noise and tone), ie with obstacles.
speech sounds vary in height, strength and durability.
Pitch – is the number of cycles per second (hertz). It depends on the length and pressure of the vocal cords. Higher sounds have a shorter wavelength.
You Must Know the Concept of Phonology Sounds If You Are A Student Of Linguistics
Types Of Phonology
Phonetics is the field of linguistics that studies the sounds of language, whether the sound has a function as a differentiator meaning or not. According to the sounds of language, it divides into three types, namely phonetic articulatory, acoustic phonetics and phonetic auditory.
Consonants are distinguished by the position of the vocal cords, and by place and manner of articulation.
These can be divided in to:
1. bilabial that is consonant occurs on both sides of the lips.
2. ie labiodentals consonant occurs in the lower teeth and upper lip.
3. Lamino-alveolar that is consonant occurs in the leaves tongue stick to the gum.
4. Dorso-velar that is consonant occurs at the base of the tongue and velum or soft palate.
Suprasegmental element is the element of the sentence in the form of words that can be written. It accompanies the pronunciation of words that can only be voiced, such as pronunciation, intonation, and pauses. It could be the sound pressure (intonation), long-short (pitch), and the sound vibrations that indicate certain emotions.
Phoneme is the sound, and sound, can be is divided into two: segmental and suprasegmental. Segmental phonemes can be shared, while suprasegmental phoneme is something that accompanies it, in the form of sound pressure (intonation), long-short (pitch), and the sound vibrations that indicate certain emotions.
The Tone or pitch
High and low tones are recognized with respect to a sound. A sound is pronounced with a high frequency of vibration will be generated a high pitch, and vice versa.
Pause or joints
Pause or joints with respect to the stopping of the sound. Joints can be divided into:
– joints in which points the boundary between one syllable to another syllable
– joints outside pointing a greater extent than the syllable segment is consisting of pauses between words in a phrase, pauses between phrases in the clause and pause in the discourse.
Syllable is the smallest unit in the regular flow of speech or sound sequence. One syllable includes a vowel or a vowel and a consonant or more. Syllabic sound or peak loudness also consists in a vowel.
Phonemic derived from English phonemes. It is a smallest unit of a sound.
Identification of the phoneme
To determine where the phoneme is located in word, the word should look for a unit of language.
Phonemes can be distinguished because it is highly dependent on their environment, or the other phonemes that are in the vicinity.
According to the hierarchy of units of sound that becomes the object of his studies, phonological and phonemic divided into phonetics. In general phonetics is usually described as a branch of study that studies the sounds of language phonology regardless of whether these sounds have a function as a differentiator meaning or not. While phonemic phonology is a branch of study that studies the sounds of language by observing the sound function as discrete categories.
In America the term phonology is called phonemic (phonemics) whereas in Europe there is also the addition of phonemic phonetic. The scholars in Europe, such as the Netherlands and the UK there are phonetics and phonology, whereas in the United States, both phonetic and phonemic discussed at the level of the so-called phonology.