According to this Psychology Today article , avoiding eye contact can indicate guilt, shame, social anxiety, low self-esteem, shyness or deception. People with autism-related problems often avoid eye contact, as do those who suffer from depression or bipolar mood disorders. In some cultures, however, direct eye contact is considered rude, flirting or confrontation.
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A professor at a University of Scotland conducted a question and answer study among children. He found that those who maintain eye contact gave the correct answer less often than those who looked away to consider their answer. He believes that, as a socialization mechanism, eye contact decreases the mental energy that is used to determine and identify a solution to a task.
Talking while making eye contact is difficult for you? Cognitive Psychology explains why this is difficult .
During childhood, the contact between mother and baby establishes a bond in which he feels safe. Like children, however, parents may require direct eye contact to detect lies, which can threaten previously established security. However, as human beings develop during adulthood, direct eye contact is a way to connect intimately with potential love interests. When direct eye contact is used to challenge the other, it is threatening and scary. Those who suffer from guilt, shame and some disorders may feel that eye contact allows others to see their perceived deficiencies, and they avoid eye contact for fear of rejection.