Organic Pollutants – Effects, Prevention and Prevention

Agriculture has a major contribution in the Indian economy and has an important place in providing food to the growing population. On the one hand the population is increasing at a rapid pace, on the other hand due to indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources; Over time, there have been many challenges in providing food to the growing population. Land and water play an important role in agriculture, but both of them have seen a decline in their quality over time. On the one hand the degradation of soil health and on the other hand the conversion of water bodies into polluted water bodies is dangerous for our environment and also marks a question mark on the existence of human life on earth.

The level of organic pollutants has increased over the last few decades and the symptoms of their toxicity are also clearly visible. Organic pollutant refers to. Pollutants that contain carbon elements in their composition. If we look at the harmful effects of organic pollutants, they are very dangerous. Soil health for environment, soil and human health is very important for human healthy life, because we depend on soil for the needs of daily life like: food, fodder and fuel etc. Most organic pollutants are synthesized compounds. Apart from this, there are also organic pollutants in nature in a natural way.

Organic pollution is caused by many factors, but some of the main factors are mentioned here:

Pesticide

We use many types of pesticides in crops and domestic use such as: insecticides, weedicides, fungicides, rat poison, formulators, insecticides etc. These mainly include organochlorine, organophosphate, carbonate and synthesized pyrethroids and organic pesticides. Apart from these, organic pesticides are also found in nature and they are also used in increasing crop production. Pesticides are mainly used in agriculture. About 2 million tons of pesticide is used worldwide, 24 percent of which is used by the United States, 45 percent of Europe and 25 percent of the rest is used by other countries of the world. The rate of this usage keeps increasing every year. If we talk about Asian countries then India comes after China, Korea, Japan. 0.5 kg in India It is used per hectare. Pesticides are highly used in India and crop use globally, as India falls in a humid-hot climate zone. This causes more damage to the crop by insect-mites. Many pesticides are also used to prevent malaria, grasshoppers, while their residues are present in the environment for many years and soil and environment farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production in the absence of knowledge of the loss of these pesticides. . The amount of pesticides reaches the crop through soil. This organic pollutant combined with fat damages the body of human organisms. Reduction in biodiversity was also observed due to excessive use of pesticides. Reduction in the amount of microorganisms, soil enzymes in the soil was also observed due to indiscriminate use of pesticides. Because India comes under a humid-hot climate zone. This causes more damage to the crop by insect-mites. Many pesticides are also used to prevent malaria, grasshoppers, while their residues are present in the environment for many years and soil and environment farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production in the absence of knowledge of the loss of these pesticides. . The amount of pesticides reaches the crop through soil. This organic pollutant combined with fat damages the body of human organisms. Reduction in biodiversity was also observed due to excessive use of pesticides. Reduction in the amount of microorganisms, soil enzymes in the soil was also observed due to indiscriminate use of pesticides. Because India comes under a humid-hot climate zone. This causes more damage to the crop by insect-mites. Many pesticides are also used to prevent malaria, grasshoppers, while their residues are present in the environment for many years and soil and environment farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production in the absence of knowledge of the loss of these pesticides. . The amount of pesticides reaches the crop through soil. This organic pollutant combined with fat damages the body of human organisms. Reduction in biodiversity was also observed due to excessive use of pesticides. Reduction in the amount of microorganisms, soil enzymes in the soil was also observed due to indiscriminate use of pesticides. While their residues are present in the environment for many years and soil and environment farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production due to lack of knowledge of the loss of these pesticides. The amount of pesticides reaches the crop through soil. This organic pollutant combined with fat damages the body of human organisms. Reduction in biodiversity was also observed due to excessive use of pesticides. Reduction in the amount of microorganisms, soil enzymes in the soil was also observed due to indiscriminate use of pesticides. While their residues are present in the environment for many years and soil and environment farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production due to lack of knowledge of the loss of these pesticides. The amount of pesticides reaches the crop through soil. This organic pollutant combined with fat damages the body of human organisms. Reduction in biodiversity was also observed due to excessive use of pesticides. Reduction in the amount of microorganisms, soil enzymes in the soil was also observed due to indiscriminate use of pesticides.

Continuous organic pollutant

These are toxic chemicals that affect human health and environmental health. We know some of them very well, like DDT, Dogen. Japan’s Ihim University reported after research that the main source of POPs has been found in municipal dumping locations. India has also found quantities of POPs at municipal dumping locations in Chennai, Delhi and Kolkata, which are harmful to the environment and human health. These chemicals are of a stable nature and are stored in the body by adipose tissue. Kidney and liver diseases start in humans due to prolonged accumulation. The number and variety of microorganisms found in the soil are also affected by this. Continuous organic pollutants are extremely harmful to the environment and human health.

Dye pollutants

Nowadays, many types of pigments are used in textile, medicine and print house. They mainly consist of azo elements. Many types of pigments are released as wastewater from commercial units to soil and water bodies during fabric printing. Due to which soil health and water quality deteriorate. Ajo-ranjan has the properties of binding heavy metals chromium and copper, which leads to many types of side effects in the human body through soil. Low amount of heavy metal also gives rise to terrible diseases like cancer in humans. Due to the dirty water coming out of the dyes industrial units, their remains have been found in the surrounding ground like Ratlam and Bicherry. Negative effects of these pollutants have been seen in crops grown on the banks of big cities. The number of microorganisms found in the soil is also decreasing at a rapid pace when dyed wastewater is used in agricultural operations.

Antibiotic pollutants

Different types of antibiotics are used to protect humans from diseases. Apart from this, they are also used in agriculture and animal husbandry. But most of it is not absorbed by the body of man or animal and it is mixed in excreta through the dirty water of the city. Apart from this, the use of antibiotics in the hospitals and the remaining antibiotics are disposed of without any treatment, which is the soil, It poses many challenges to water and human health. Remains of urban antibiotics will also be easily found in rivers passing through metros. But there is less awareness among people for disposal of this pollutant and hospitals also drain the normal sewage drains ignoring environmental regulations. When these antibiotics enter the soil, the soil cycle is affected in many ways. The crop yield decreases. In addition, they reduce the antibiotic resistance in humans, reducing the effect of antibiotics on harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many new harmful microorganisms arise from their side effects.

Table 1. Organic Pollutant Dissolution by Soil Microorganisms

Microorganism Pollutant
Clostridium species Dieldrin and aldrin
Alkaligene species  
Basil’s Species  
Cyanobacteria  
Pseudomonas species DDT
Ganoderma species Linden
Vasiles Species  
Entrobacter ceres Chlorpyriphos
Aeromonas species  
Basil’s Species  
Flavobacter species  
Arthrobacter polychromogens Phenanthrene
Baker’s yeast Atrazone basic dyes
Aspagils species  
Gorbona species  
Pseudomonas purida  
Opence lecties Pyrene
Debury Omaise Polymorphs Reactive black and dyes

Prevention

Explaining the harmful effects caused by organic pollutants, it shows that their toxicity is very high, how they can be avoided. Here are some remedies and precautions in this regard, which are as follows:

Harmful effects of organic pollutants

  • They give rise to many types of diseases in humans such as cataract, liver and kidney damage, jaundice, quasars. Apart from this, they also affect the nervous system, respiratory system, hormone secretion system and reproductive system of the body.
  • Their microscopic concentrations can also imbalance the ecosystem, affecting the food chain. Such as the decrease of the vulture population.
  • Their low quantity can also reduce metabolic activity and growth and population of soil microorganisms.
  • It reduces the growth rate and productivity of plants.
  • The effect of organic pollutants on aquatic organisms increases.

Minimum usage

Use of organic chemicals should be reduced. Nowadays, people start using insecticides indiscriminately in the initial outbreak of insect-mites, whereas chemicals should not be used excessively. Also use organic chemicals that are easily decomposed in the environment. Awareness should be created among people in villages and cities through various means. There should be timely investigation of soil and crop by the Food Department in areas with high use of chemicals.

Use of decomposing microorganisms

Microorganisms in soil are scavengers cleaning various types of dirt. Organisms of this type cannot clear organic contaminants from soil on all types of organic aquatic organisms. Some microorganisms are given in Table-1, which are sensitive to chemicals.

Soil enzyme

Many types of soil enzymes present in the soil are also helpful for dissolution of organic pollutants. These enzymes are synthesized by a variety of microorganisms.

Photochemical decomposition

Such methods are used to remove PAHs and antibiotic organic pollutants present in the soil. The utility of this method depends on the solubility of the donor. The toxicity of pollutants also changes / decreases by this method. Subsequently, the efficiency of biological decomposition methods was observed.

Augmented microbe actions

Beta-proteovector and acidobacter PCBs found in nature have a high ability to decompose. The efficiency of these microorganisms has been observed to increase due to root juices secreted by plants in the soil. By using microorganisms, we can also remove / reduce dye pollutants from the soil.

Thus, organic pollutants are also harmful to soil, plant and human life just like inorganic pollutants. Use them in appropriate quantity and time in crop production and domestic use. By making the general public aware of the side effects caused by them, we can keep the environment / ecology healthy so that human life proves to be a boon on earth and not a curse.

 

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