Orange fruit

The orange fruit is one of the fruits most popular and healthy world. It has a high content of vitamin C. Its flavor, especially of some varieties, is truly superb for its acidity and sweetness. Approximately 90 percent of its content is water with five percent sugars. Orange is the fruit obtained from the sweet orange tree (Citrus × sinensis), an ancient hybrid tree originating in India , Vietnam and southeast China .


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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Basonym
      • 2.1 Basonym combinations
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
    • 5 Edible varieties
      • 5.1 Navel Group
      • 5.2 White Group
      • 5.3 Blood Group
      • 5.4 Sucreñas Group
    • 2 Origin
    • 3 Properties
    • 4 Nutrients of the orange
    • 5 Producing countries
    • 6 Crops
      • 1 Pests
      • 2 Diseases
    • 7 Sources


Scientific name

  • Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck [1]


  • Osbeck, Pehr
  • Posted in: Reise nach Ostindien und China 250. 1765. [two]


  • Citrus aurantium var. sinensis L. [3]

Basonym combinations

  • Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck [4]


  • Citrus aurantium var. sinensis L. [5]

Common name

Orange, sweet orange, sweet orange

Edible varieties

There are many different varieties, mainly due to the quality of the fruit and the flavor, which varies from sweet to acidic. The Citrus aurantium species produces bitter oranges used to make some liqueurs, jams and preserves.

Navel Group

Characterized by a large seedless fruit with early maturity, with a navel ( Navel in English, from where the name of the Group comes) in the area opposite the peduncle . It is not recommended to make juices.


  • Bahianinha Baianina piracicaba. Small tree, probably due to spontaneous mutation of navel Bahía. Brazilian variety. Good adaptation to hot regions.
  • Fishe
  • The origin is unknown, it was discovered by Gillemberg in 1985. Great flavor.
  • Navel Lane Late. Detected in 1950 by spontaneous mutation of navel Washington on the L. Lane property in Australia. Virtually 50% of navel production is Lane Late.
  • Leng
  • Navel Late
  • Navelina
  • Newhall
  • Huando
  • Palmer
  • Skaggs Bonanza
  • Thomson
  • Bay or Washington
  • Powell

White Group


  • Ambersweet
  • Belladonna
  • Verna
  • Chain
  • Castilian
  • Delta Seedless
  • Hamlin
  • Marrs
  • Midknight
  • Native
  • Or voucher
  • Parson Brown
  • Pear
  • Pineapple
  • Salustiana
  • Shamouti
  • Trovita
  • Valencia
  • Westin
  • Barber
  • Valencia cutter

Blood Group


  • Double fine
  • Maltise sanguine
  • Moor
  • Sanguinelli
  • Sanguinello
  • Torocco
  • Tomango
  • Sanguine washington

Sucreñas Group


  • Succari
  • Sucreña
  • Lime
  • Mosambi


The orange originated thousands of years ago in Asia , in the region from southern China to Indonesia , from which it spread to India . Sweet oranges were introduced to Europe around the 15th century by various groups, including the Moors and the Portuguese, as well as Italian merchants, and the explorers they encountered on their travels to Asia and the Middle East .

Orange trees began to be cultivated on the Caribbean islands in the 15th century when Christopher Columbus brought the seeds on his second trip to the New World. Spanish explorers are responsible for bringing oranges to Florida in the 16th century , while Spanish missionaries were the ones who brought oranges to California in the 18th century , from the cultivation of this citrus in the two states of the United States that they have the largest amount of orange crops.

Before the 20th century , oranges were very expensive and therefore were not consumed on a regular basis, rather they were eaten on special days like Christmas . When more advanced means of transportation were developed and current food preservation methods were invented, orange began to be used due to its nutrients such as citric acid and bioflavonoids. The price of oranges has greatly decreased, and previously oranges are widely distributed and marketed worldwide.


Orange juice is very beneficial for human health due to its vitamins]] Orange is a citrus fruit that has healing properties because it is acidic, and this acid is purifying and oxidizing, disinfecting and microbicidal (like most citrus fruits) . A long list of diseases and favorable actions are what make its juice, in addition to being sweet and refreshing, a drink spoiled by the body.

Main benefits

  • Cleanses and tones the bloodand all its tissues, muscles and cells
  • Destroys fat and obesity, lowers the belly, cleanses the skin and makes the eyes shine.
  • Disinfects blood and cures any infectious diseases such as colds, coughs , syphilis , fungi , skin infections , canker sores, fevers (caused by infection or toxemia), pus lesions.
  • It regulates the heart rhythm and is used to treat cases of tumors.
  • It clears the brainand helps to have a cleaner and healthier mind.
  • Heals sores in the mouthand gums .
  • Beautify hair.
  • They help prevent and cure dizziness.
  • They help relieve headache pain.

Nutrients of the orange

Orange is a food rich in vitamin C since 100 g. of this fruit contain 50.60 mg. vitamin C.

Among the nutritional properties of orange, it should be noted that it has the following nutrients:

Nutrients Value Nutrients Value
Iron 0.49 mg Sodium 1.40 mg
Protein 0.87 g Vitamin A 33.60 ug
Calcium 41 mg Vitamin B1 0.08 mg
Fiber 2.30 g Vitamin B2 0.04 mg
Potassium 165 mg Vitamin B3 0.48 mg
Iodine 2.10 mg Vitamin B5 0.37 ug
Zinc 0.15 mg Vitamin B6 0.06 mg
Carbohydrates 8.90 g Vitamin B7 1 ug
Magnesium 15.20 mg Vitamin B9 38.70 ug
Sodium 1.40 mg Vitamin E 0.81 mg
vitamin K 3.80 ug Match 20 mg
Calories 45.48 kcal Grease 0.20 g
Sugar 8.90 g Purines 19 mg

Producing countries

Currently, the countries that are some of the largest producers of commercials for oranges are the United States, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, China and Israel .


It is a subtropical species. It does not tolerate frost, since it suffers both flowers and fruits and vegetation , which can totally disappear. It has little resistance to cold (at 3-5ºC below zero it suffers a lot).

It does not require cold-hours for flowering. It does not have winter rests, but a stop of growth due to low temperatures (quiescence), which induces the induction of branches that bloom in spring . It requires significant rainfall (around 1,200 mm), which when not covered must be used for irrigation. It needs warm temperatures during the summer for the correct ripening of the fruits.

It is an avid species of light for the flowering and fruiting processes, which take place preferably on the outside of the crown and skirts of the tree. Therefore, fruiting occurs in a hollow cup, which is a problem when pruning.

It is very sensitive to the wind , suffering losses of fruits in preharvest by transmission of the vibration. As for soils, they prefer sandy or loamy-sandy, deep, fresh and without limestone, with a pH between 6 and 7. It does not tolerate salinity, although the use of standards is a solution to this problem.


  • Citrus miner (Phyllocnistis citrella)
  • Woodlouse
  • Red spider (mite)
  • White fly


  • Phytophthora spp.
  • Viruses and viroids: virus of sadness, exocortis and psoriasis.


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