Lemon (Citrus × limon) . Small fruit tree that can reach more than 4 m in height, whose fruit is lemon, with an acidic and extremely fragrant flavor that is used in food. The lemon tree has a wood with smooth bark and hard and yellowish wood highly prized for joinery work . Botanically, it is a hybrid species of the genus Citrus. It is native to Asia and was unknown to the Greeks and Romans, being first mentioned in the Nabathae book on agriculture around the 3rd or 4th century . The cultivation was developed in the west after the Arab conquest of Spain , then spreading throughout the Mediterranean coast. where it is cultivated profusely, due to the mild climate, for domestic and export consumption.


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  • 1 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Basonym
      • 2.1 Basonym combinations
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 2 General
    • 1 Origin
    • 2 Features
    • 3 Location
    • 4 Varieties
    • 5 Propagation
    • 6 Components
  • 3 Properties and forms of administration
    • 1 Medicinal
    • 2 Route of administration and preparation
  • 4 Industrial uses
    • 1 Tips
  • 5 Use of growth regulator ACTIVOL GA
  • 6 External links
  • 7 References
  • 8 Sources


Scientific name

  • Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck [1] [2]


  • Osbeck, Pehr
  • Posted in: Reise nach Ostindien und China 250. 1765. [3]


  • Citrus medica var. lemon L. [4]

Basonym combinations

  • Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. F.
  • Citrus × limonia (L.) Osbeck
  • Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.
  • Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck
  • Citrus medica f. lemon (L.) Hiroë [5]


  • Citrus × aurantium var. bergamia (Risso) Brandis
  • Citrus × aurantium var. Mellarosa (Risso) Engl.
  • Citrus × bergamia Risso
  • Citrus × bergamia subsp. mellarosa (Risso) D. Rivera, Obón, S. Ríos, Selma, F. Mendez, Verde & F. Cano
  • Citrus × bergamot Raf.
  • Citrus × limodulcis D. Rivera, Obón, F. Mendez & S. Ríos
  • Citrus × limonum Risso
  • Citrus × mellarosa Risso
  • Citrus × meyeri Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus limonum Risso
  • Citrus medica f. lemon (L.) Hiroë
  • Citrus medica subsp. limonia (Risso) Hook. F.
  • Citrus medica var. lemon L.
  • Citrus medica var. limonum (Risso) Brandis
  • Limon × vulgaris Ferrarius ex Miller [6]
  • Citrus × limonia Osbeck
  • Citrus × medica var. limonum (Risso) Brandis
  • Citrus × medica subsp. limonum (Risso) Engl.
  • Citrus × vulgaris Ferrarius ex Mill. [7]

Common name

Creole lemon, sour lemon, lemon



Probably Indo-Malay Archipelago, from where it was taken to India to spread throughout the old world. Introduced in America from the first voyages of Christopher Columbus .


  1. Small tree with short and sharp thorns on the branches.
  2. The bark of its trunk is grayish and the twigs can be angular or rounded.
  3. Alternate leaves, relatively small compared to other citrus fruits(5-7 cm in length), have numerous transparent glands on the surface that contain abundant essential oils; This gives the lemon leaves a peculiar aroma. This characteristic is typical of all Rutáceas . Petioles generally lack wings or what they present is a tiny projection on the margins, without actually constituting wings.
  4. Flowers in groups of 2-7 located in the axils of the leaves, are usually red before opening; when opened, they show their interior as white as that of their orange blossom brothers, and keep the faint red of their petals on the outside.
  5. Occasionally small fruits with an apical papilla, thin and smooth rind; acidic endocarp juice.


Subspontaneously in thickets near coasts and in interior lands of low and medium elevation. Cultivated by the population mainly in rural areas.


In Cuba the Creole lemon (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing. Var. Mexicana, which is not a true lemon but a horticultural variety of the lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Swing. It is a common species in Cuba that is highly appreciated It grows spontaneously in some mountains and in open limestone terrain.It is a small tree whose leaves have a short, closely winged petiole, its flowers are completely white and very small, and the fruit is sometimes less than that of the true lemon. smooth and yellow.


The most used method to propagate citrus is grafting, and by this means it has been possible to improve its characteristics, which is expressed in the numerous varieties that exist in Cuba today.

For the “FROST-EUREKA” lemon tree, use Citrus macrophylla as a standard. Transplant the postures into bags when they are about 10 cm high. Grafting when at a height of 40 cm the stems reach 5 mm or more in diameter (normal gusset graft). Transplant to the ground after 3-4 months of grafting. Use distances of 4×6, 4×8, 6×8 or 9×5 meters.


Fruit peel: Essential oil with d-limonene, felandrene, citronellal and other substances in smaller proportions. Juice: Citric acid , malic, acetic and formic , hesperidin glycoside, pectin and several vitamins , mainly C .

Properties and forms of administration


  • Lemon is good for liverand gallbladder diseases since it stimulates bile secretions, it is effective because it helps digest fatty foods. A tablespoon of virgin olive oil with a dash of lemon on an empty stomach has a surprising effect on the liver and gallbladder.
  • Ideal to combat high blood pressureas it contains a high level of potassium and a low sodium content . If you have to avoid salt , lemon can be used to dress meats, fish and salads.
  • It is rich in vitamin C, it has a refreshing effect and the cleansing capacity of the liver makes it very convenient for a fever or flu process. If the person has a fever but feels very cold, it is advisable to take it with hot water and honey . Furthermore, this richness of vitamin C and bioflavonoids is ideal for strengthening capillaries and avoiding the tendency to allergies, bruises, and spider veins.
  • For many gum problems since it is anti-hemorrhagic and rich in vitamin C. Precisely the richness in vitamin C has traditionally made it highly recommended to avoid Scurvy.
  • Improves throat conditions (angina, pharyngitis, etc). Take it with warm water and honey and also gargle with this mixture.
  • Diabetics would greatly benefit from drinking water with a splash of lemon, which cleanses, remineralises and stimulates the Pancreas and Liver.
  • The use in rheumatic people is prohibited since it is considered very acidic but it really tends to eliminate acidity from the body since these acids are metabolized during digestion to produce potassium carbonate. This precisely favors the neutralization of excess acids in the body, being able to relieve rheumatic and arthritic pain.
  • It can be of great help in some congestions and headaches if they are related to the liver; for example when they occur after a fat or heavy meal.
  • In the genito– urinary system as a diuretic and in the skin and mucosa as an antifungal and antibacterial.
  • Digestive: which helps to expel

gases and laxative properties. It is recommended for the treatment of colic caused by poor digestion, constipation or headache caused by difficult and prolonged digestion.

  • Lemon decoction has stimulating properties, lowers fever and relieves pain.
  • The juice is particularly useful in treating liver and spleen conditions, to expel kidney stones, fight rheumatism and other arthritic conditions, lower fever, disinfect the throat, and remove pimples from the tongue.
  • Helps keep hair healthy. It is good to dissolve it in water to rinse the hair and keep it shiny and defatted.

Administration and preparation route

  • Oral
  • Topical

Lemon fruit

A lemon is cut into slices without removing the peel and boiled in three cups of water until consumed in two cups, filtered and drunk on an empty stomach.

The infusion is prepared by adding a lemon wedge in the peel to a cup of boiling water, let it rest for 5 minutes, sweeten and drink after meals.

As juice, three lemons are squeezed in half a glass of water and drunk in the morning on an empty stomach, for 10 days. If deemed necessary, the number of lemons can be increased. This juice can be used as a gargle and mouthwash.

Industrial uses

  • Lemon is widely used in the liqueurs, perfumes, sweets and jams industry. If necessary, it can be used to purify water that is not drinkable by adding a few drops of its juice to a glass of water. Fruit juice for refreshing drinks, dressing foods


  • Essential oil, or parts of the plant that contain it, can cause

dermatitis . Do not expose the parts treated with products of this plant to the sun . Topically do not use for more than 3 weeks.

  • When drinking lemon juice, it is advisable to dilute it, or drink it with a straw, so that its properties are not altered at all, it is better tolerated and tooth enamel is not damaged.
  • The lemons that contain the most juice are those with a thin skin and a deep yellow color.
  • The most aromatic and heaviest should be chosen in relation to the size, since they are usually also those that provide more juice.
  • To avoid black hands after peeling vegetables, a very effective remedy is to rub your fingers with half a lemon and wash them regularly afterward.

Use of the growth regulator ACTIVOL GA

ACTIVOL GA This growth regulator for fruit and vegetables acts as an accelerator of plant development, obtaining larger plants. In addition, it induces flowering and improves fruit set, achieving better quality and higher yield.


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