Olive . The olive is the fruit of the olive tree. They extend throughout the Mediterranean area. It is cultivated mainly for its fleshy drupe type fruit, with a single seed inside that changes from green to bluish or purple, and are black when they have matured. The olive oil is extracted from the fruit of the olive tree , the olive or olive .


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  • 1 Features
  • 2 varieties
    • 1 Greens and blacks
  • 3 Eating Tips
  • 4 Olive and its benefits
    • 1 Diets
  • 5 olives and oil
    • 1 Effects on the body
  • 6 Sources


Evergreen family tree up to 15 m. Tall. Greyish stems when the tree is young, darker as it ages and whose bark breaks down into plates. Opposite leaves up to 8 cm, lanceolate, coriaceous, with a bright beam and whitish underside. Fruits in drupe (olive), edible .

Olives or olives are part of a group of foods whose common factor is the high proportion of high-quality fats (up to 20%). Within this group are soy , cocoa , sunflower , pine nuts , and almonds , walnuts and hazelnuts .

The olive or table olives can be considered as a food of great nutritional value, rich in high quality fatty components. It contains all the essential amino acids , a large amount of minerals, an appreciable content of carotenes ( provitamin A), vitamin C and thiamine , and a good amount of fiber, providing about 150 calories per 100 grams of food.


Table olives are the name of the product prepared from the healthy, clean and sufficiently ripe fruit of the olive tree , once it is subjected to treatments that guarantee its quality, good conservation, and safety for the consumer. Of the different varieties of table olives, the best known is chamomile , which is the most important and quality, and is grown almost exclusively in the province of Seville .

Also noteworthy is the rapazalla or rapasayos, another Sevillian variety that is also cultivated in other regions, where it is usually called Carrasqueña. The gordal is highly appreciated for filling with anchovies or peppers, as well as the chamomile is enough or moroma. These four varieties are used on a large scale by industries dedicated to the preparation and seasoning of green olives in brine .

Green and black

The skin of the olives has a variable coloration, the predominant pigments being chlorophyll , santophyll , anthocyanins . In fact, they can be divided into green and black. The greens are obtained from fruits collected during ripening, before veraison, when they reach normal size. The color of the fruit changes from green to straw yellow. Once collected, they are softened in lime water and preserved in brine .

Of color of the time: fruits of pale pink color, alive or chestnut, collected before ripe, subjected or not to alkaline treatment and ready for consumption.

Black: obtained from fruits that without being fully ripe, darken by oxidation and have lost bitterness with alkaline bleach , and must be packed in brine.

Natural blacks: those obtained from fruits collected in full maturation or almost ripe, which may have reddish, chestnut, violet or greenish black colors.

Once chosen, the most suitable variety for the dressing, the olives are washed. Afterwards, they are treated with alkaline bleach to eliminate the characteristic bitterness. They are then washed with water to remove excess alkalinity, and placed in brine or 10% saline solution at 25º-28º C, in order to favor the growth of bacteria.

Dietary advice

Olives are part of a food group whose common factor is the high proportion of high quality fats (up to 20%). Within this group are soy , cocoa , sunflower , pine nuts, and almonds , walnuts and hazelnuts . They contain all the essential amino acids , a large amount of minerals, carotenes ( provitamin A ), vitamin C and thiamine , and a good amount of fiber. They provide about 150 calories, per 100 grams.

It is not good that they are consumed during the first years of development of the person, since although the child needs fats; these should be more diluted. As age increases, they can be consumed progressively, what’s more, adults can include them in the diet, keeping in mind that their caloric intake is high. During old age, their consumption should decrease, since caloric expenditure is less. Metabolic capacity decreases and cholesterol rises, in proportion to fat consumption. In diabetes or obesity processes they are not advisable, since it tends to provide the patient with low calorie diets and fatty foods.

The product prepared from the healthy, clean and sufficiently mature fruit of the olive tree is called “table olive” , once it is subjected to treatments that guarantee its quality and good conservation for the consumer.

The skin of the olives has a variable coloration, the predominant pigments being chlorophyll , santophyll , and anthocyanins . Therefore, they can be divided into green and black. The color of the fruit changes from green to straw yellow. Once collected, they are softened in lime water and preserved in brine .

Olive and its benefits

Subsistence allowance

Olives in the diet

The olive is a food with great nutritional value, it has essential amino acids as well as vitamins and minerals. Experts advise ingesting 25 grams daily (approximately 7 olives), for its important health benefits, thanks to its components. In addition, olives help maintain a healthy and balanced diet. Its intake in weight loss diets is allowed since they provide 7 calories per olive . The question is why olives should be consumed and what are their benefits. For this there are the following responses:

  • They are nutritious: they contain minerals suchas: phosphorus , iron , magnesium , potassium , sodium and iodine .
  • They contain calcium: they supply this mineral to the human organism.
  • They are antioxidants: for their content of Vitamin A, Vitamin B and Vitamin E , which are antioxidants.
  • They provide vitamins: they transmit essential amino acidsand vitamins to the body.
  • They have oleic acid: they are rich in monounsaturated fats that protect the heart.
  • Variety: there are multiple varieties of presentation of this food.
  • Accessibility: it is an accessible and ideal food for making meals (salads, pizzas).

Olives and oil

Effects on the body

It can be said that at all times, the olives or the oil extracted from them, have constituted the vitalizing source of fatty substances in the Mediterranean peoples. The nutritional qualities of olives explain its general acceptance from the earliest antiquity. Olives, both green and black, provide calcium to the body – an essential mineral for bone formation – in a very high proportion with respect to phosphorus ; which is of interest from the point of view of the calcium-phosphorus balance of any diet, which is often much richer in phosphorus than in calcium. The ideal calcium-phosphorus ratio is around 1 in children and around 0.7 in adults.

In olives, fats are formed at the expense of sugars and protides , of which green olives are richer, but these are less digestive than black olives. The strong flavor of the olives favors the secretion of salivary and gastric juices. Therefore, it is a good practice to consume them as an aperitif. Olives and oil, in addition to being nutritious, are hepatic bile activators (cholagogues and ethical colee) and laxatives.

The oil plays a very favorable role in the digestive system, retaining food for a certain time and regularizing the evacuation of the stomach . It also tends to somewhat decrease the acidity of the gastric juice and also facilitates and regulates the evacuation of the intestinal content.

The olive oil exerts a stimulating action of bile secretion and as is slightly laxative, fights constipation due to muscle weakness , evil that strikes people of all ages because few regimes in vegetables and fruits and, above all, pregnant women, due to visceral compressions or other dysfunctional causes.

The absorption of olive oil determines an increase in bile secretion, with an increase in its proportion of fatty bodies. Simultaneously, olive oil acts on the bile reservoir, which is the gallbladder , causing it to contract and ensuring its emptying. This food is, therefore, a complete cholagogue, on the one hand exciting for biliary secretion, and on the other, ensuring the flow of bile in the intestine, by triggering gallbladder contraction.

Due to its richness in carotene ( biologically active provitamin A), olives are beneficial for growth, the fight against microbial infections and the mechanism of vision. On the other hand, olive oil favors the absorption by the body of the carotene contained in other foods, such as carrots. The vitamin value of olive oil is highly variable and depends on the quality of the oil. The one obtained from the first extraction has more vitamins than the refined ones because the refining processes cause the loss of most of the vitamins. Refining olive oil should avoid overly intense purification if the oil is to retain its vitamin and nutritional value.


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