raining is the process, method and practice of training. Here are some other understandings about the training, which are as follows:
- Training is an activity in order to increase the knowledge and skills of office personnel and employees to carry out certain tasks.
- Training is an activity carried out by a company or government or private agency whose aim is to increase the expertise, skills and mental knowledge of personnel or office employees in carrying out their duties.
- Based on the instruction of President No. 15 of 1974, Training is part of education that involves the learning process to obtain and improve skills outside the education system that applies in a relatively short time with methods that prioritize practice rather than theory.
From some of the above understanding of training can be concluded that the training is an activity in order to improve the ability and technical skills of employees to carry out their duties.
In the opinion of Wexley and Yulk in the book Organizational Behavior and Personnel Psychology, Development is an increase in the ability to take decisions and expand human relations (Human Relations) for middle and upper level employees (managerial level). So with that training and development can be very closely related to various efforts that are planned to be able to achieve mastery of the abilities, knowledge, and attitudes of employees.
Office Personnel Requirements
In general, office personnel requirements include the following:
1. Knowledge Requirements
Office employees must be able to do classification based on certain criteria, where various knowledge requirements usually include knowledge that is based on a particular profession.
2. Skills Requirements
An office employee wherever he is placed must be able to carry out all the work given to the employee properly and correctly.
3. Personality Requirements
Personality is the overall character and nature of a person. The personality of a person is very different from the others depending on the character and nature of the person because each person has their own characteristics.
Benefits of Training
In order to improve the quality of knowledge, talents, and skills of office personnel or employees both old and new, the existence of a training program will be very necessary and beneficial for employees. The following are some of the benefits with training, including:
- Training can improve the performance of office personnel or employees.
- With training, employees can develop faster and better.
- Training can be a means to improve the workings of employees, so they can adjust to organizational development and work activities.
- With training, employees are given the opportunity to develop their potential.
- Training is expected to provide an increase in employee work ethics and increase company productivity.
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Training Types and Objectives
The purpose of holding training for employees is closely related to the types of training available, which are as follows:
1. Refresing Training
Refressing Traning is a training that aims to train employees about jobs that have been owned by previous employees.
2. Office Method Training
Office Method Traning is a form of training that aims to provide knowledge about how to do routine work, especially in the secretarial field.
3. Administrative Training
Administrative Training is a training that aims to provide knowledge about how to practice some work techniques related to office work.
4. Supervisory Training
Supervisory Training is training aimed at helping agencies to guide personnel, where training personnel are assigned as instructors to train employees. Participants also receive supervision and evaluation.
Besides having different objectives as mentioned above, training also in essence has a common goal, among others as follows:
- Improve the knowledge and skills of office personnel.
- Developing the expertise of personnel so that they can work efficiently and effectively.
- Change and shape the attitude of personnel.
- Developing enthusiasm, pleasure, and willingness to work personnel.
- Facilitate supervision of personnel.
Various Training Principles
To achieve the targets and objectives set by the training, implementation must be based on the following principles:
1. The principle of individual differences
In carrying out the training, it must be noted several individual differences in the training participants. For example, differences in abilities, differences in educational levels, differences in interests, and differences in experience.
2. The principle of employee development
In employee development, employee education and training must be done in terms of skills, abilities and knowledge.
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Training and Development Components
The training and development components are as follows:
- Training and development goals and objectives must be measurable and clear.
- Training and development materials must be in accordance with the objectives and objectives set.
- Trainees must meet the specified requirements.
- Training and development methods must be in accordance with the abilities of the trainees.
- Trainers must have qualifications that meet the requirements.
Various Principles of Training Planning and Development
Mc. Gehee (1979), has formulated several training planning and development principles, including the following:
- Material must be given systematically and in stages.
- There is an amplifier to generate positive responses from the training participants.
- Using the concept of shaping (formation) behavior.
- The various stages must be in accordance with the objectives to be achieved.
- Trainers must be able to motivate and spread responses related to a range of subject matter.
Various Stages of Training and Development
Some stages of the preparation of training and development among others are as follows:
- Set goals and objectives for training and development.
- Identify training and development needs.
- Establish clear training and development methods.
- Establish success criteria and measuring tools used.
- Experiment (try out) and make revisions.
- Evaluate the results of existing training and development.
Training and Development Objectives
There are objectives of training and development between LAN as follows:
- Increase productivity and quality of work of personnel.
- Improve the determination of human resources (HR).
- Improve the attitude, morale and morale of the personnel.
- Increasing stimulation so that personnel can achieve maximum.
- Increase the appreciation of the soul and ideology.
- Improve the health and safety of personnel.
- Improve the development of employee personnel.
- Avoiding hostility.
Factors to consider in training and development
Some factors that must be considered in conducting training and development include the following:
- Differences of each employee.
- Relationships with departmental analysis.
- Partispasi is active.
- Training participants selection.
- Training and development methods.
Training and Development Needs
Based on Ernest J. Mc Cormick in his book Industry and Organizational Psychology, the need for training and development programs is that an agency or organization needs to involve resources (employees) in training activities, if it is the best decision of the manager.
Training is expected to modify employee behavior and can support organizational goals, such as production, distribution of goods and services that are more efficient, reduce operating costs and improve employee quality.