Nanotechnology is the technology of manipulating atoms and molecules . This science is dedicated to the study and creation of new materials, products and processes through atomic restructuring.With the use of nanotechnology, it is possible to build nanometer- scale machines and equipment (a unit of measurement that is equivalent to one billionth of a meter), and that will potentiate the manufacture of safer, more durable, intelligent and much smaller products than one human cell, for example.
The first studies on nanotechnology began in 1959, through the North American physicist Richard Feynman (1918 – 1988). But, only at the beginning of the 21st century that this technology began to develop widely.
As said, nanotechnology works from the manipulation of atomic and molecular matter, so it is necessary to use high precision equipment, which allows the modification of the properties of the materials at the atomic level.There are already several examples of nanotechnology in people’s everyday life, whether in the technological field (cell phones and computers increasingly faster and smaller), textiles (dirt-resistant, bacteria and waterproof fabrics) in the energy sector (tiny batteries and fast charging ), among others.
Nanotechnology in medicine
The application of nanotechnology in medicine has opened up a range of possibilities for alternatives in the treatment of diseases or in the production of new and more effective medicines. In addition, this technology still promises to increase the longevity of people’s lives and the shortening in the period of treatments and cure of diseases.
The nanomedicine (branch of medicine that has emerged from studies of nanotechnology) may develop less toxic drugs, less aggressive and act directly in the areas of the body where they are needed, reducing or canceling out the side effects.
Another advantage of nanotechnology in medicine is the possibility of treating serious and degenerative diseases, such as cancer and AIDS, for example. It is believed that with nanomedicine, cancer cells could be directly attacked by nanorobots, avoiding all the negative effects of conventional treatment methods, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, for example.