Masonry . It is the art of building buildings or works in which they are used, depending on the case, brick , stone , lime , sand , plaster , cement or other similar materials. Structural material consisting of masonry units seated with mortars .
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- 1 Materials and tools
- 2 Types of Masonry
- 1 Simple masonry
- 2 Armed masonry
- 3 Reinforced masonry
- 3 Masonry components
- 1 Proportions
- 2 Conventional concrete
- 4 Masonry Units
- 1 Labor
- 2 Requirements
- 3 Non-bearing walls
- 5 Foundation
- 1 Bearing Wall
- 2 Roofs
- 3 Confined masonry
- 6 External links
- 7 Sources
Materials and tools
For masonry works (also known simply as masonry), stone materials are mainly used, such as: clay bricks, cement mortar blocks, stones and other similar ones of equal or similar origin to those already mentioned. The person who performs masonry work is known as a mason. The mason, to carry out his work, uses as tools a container in which he prepares the mortar mixture, another in which he cures the bricks in order to use them saturated with water, a wooden plank, a set of teachers, canvas and nails
Types of Masonry
We can find three types of masonry, whose use is determined by the fate of the building and the respective calculation and architecture projects. These types are: simple masonry, armed masonry and reinforced masonry.
Used in a traditional way and developed through experimentation. It is in which the masonry has no more elements than brick and mortar or mortar, these being the structural elements responsible for resisting all the potential loads that affect the construction. This is achieved by arranging the elements of the structure so that the acting forces are preferably compression.
This masonry is known by this name in which steel is used as reinforcement in the walls that are built.
Mainly, these reinforcements consist of tensioners (such as vertical reinforcements) and stirrups (such as horizontal reinforcements), reinforcements that are embedded in the foundations or construction pillars, respectively.
The use of mechanized bricks is usually preferred, whose structural design facilitates the insertion of tensioners to give the structure greater flexibility.
Reinforced masonry with horizontal and vertical reinforcement elements, whose function is to improve the durability of the whole.
- Mortar: It is a mixture of cement, sand, water and technically formulated additives that allow to keep the product in a fresh state for hours or days, in adequate storage conditions. Adhesive used to glue masonry units. Built by a mixture of binders, such as Portland cement and hydrated lime.
- Liquid Mortar: Lime and cement mortar, of liquid consistency, used to fill alveoli of the masonry units. It consists of a mixture of 1 part Portland cement 1½ of hydrated lime and 3 parts of fine sand (natural sand), beaten with water.
- Portland cement type I and hydrated lime:
Type Cement Lime Sand
– P1 – C 1 1 4
– P2 – C 1 1 5
– NP – C 1 1 6
- Portland cement type 1:
Type Cement Sand
– P1 1 4
– P1 1 5
– NP 1 6
Specification resistors Not applicable Kg / cm². Resistance verification ages f´c Not applicable Days. Maximum aggregate size ¼ inch. Handling time 1.5 Hours. Design consistency 6 – 8 inches. Initial setting times since leaving the plant 2.5 Hours. Density 2,000 Kg / m³. Air content Maximum 10%.
They are the following: clay brick, block or limestone brick and concrete block. Masonry units can be solid, hollow or tubular. All masonry units must not have any defects in the case of concrete ones, they must have a minimum age of 28 days before being used.
The people in charge of the workforce must be capable and qualified people.
The walls are built to lead and online. All joints, horizontal and vertical, must be filled with mortar. Mortar weight should be a minimum of 10mm. Masonry units must settle with clean units. Do not settle more than 1.20m of wall height in a work day. The reinforced masonry, reinforced with steel , must be filled with mortar.
Designed and built in such a way that it only carries loads from its own weight.
- The following: Parapets, partitions and fences. All of these must be braced at intervals, except parapets less than 1m high that are removed from the exterior plane of the facade. The foundation of the fences must be designed by rational calculation methods.
- Reinforcing elements, horizontal or vertical or bracing wall, which performs the function of providing stability and resistance to bearing and non-bearing walls for loads perpendicular to the plane of the wall.
- It is considered bracing: When there is sufficient adhesion, mooring and / or anchoring between the walls and their bracing that guarantee the adequate transfer of efforts. When using the roofs for lateral stability, precautions are taken so that the lateral forces acting on them are properly transferred to the ground.
It is the structural part of the building, responsible for transmitting the loads to the ground, which is the only element that cannot be chosen, so the foundation will be carried out based on it. At the same time this is not all at the same depth, so that will be another reason that influences us in the decision to choose the right foundation. The foundations are classified:
- Surface foundations
- Deep foundations
- Special foundations
The foundation for the bearing walls must be concrete. The foundation must transmit the load of the walls to the ground according to the permissible effort on it and with differential settlements that do not cause cracks in the masonry.
Wall designed and constructed in such a way that it can transmit horizontal and / or vertical loads from one level to the lower level and / or to the foundation. – They may be solid or hollow units seated with mortars with lime or without lime. – The minimum weight will be: Reinforced masonry: t = h / 26. Unreinforced masonry: t = h / 20 t: wall thickness; h: effective height.
Horizontal element that is at the top of a construction that serves as protection. They will be formed by light tiles when they fulfill the function of distributing horizontal forces in proportion to the stiffness of the walls. If the diaphragm action is not fulfilled on wooden , steel or prefabricated roofs , the horizontal forces will be distributed in proportion to their tax area.
They are a set of horizontal and vertical reinforcement elements, whose function is to provide ductility to a bearing wall. The requirements are: – In seismic zones: 1 and 2 at least any wall that carries 10% of the seismic force and a set of walls that carry 70% of the total seismic force will be confined, including within this the perimeter walls of closure, and at least zone 3 the perimeter walls of closure shall be confined. – That is framed by its four sides by horizontal and vertical elements